BOA1

19 Apr 2015

[#Italy, #migrants:] 'Major' #emergency as #boat #capsizes (BBC, April 19 2015)

[Source: BBC, full page: (LINK).]

'Major' emergency as boat capsizes [   /!\   ]

A rescue operation is under way after migrant boat capsizes off the Italian island of Lampedusa.

(…)

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'Mysterious' #disease kills 18 in #Nigeria (Guardian, April 19 2015)

[Source: The Guardian, full page: (LINK).]

'Mysterious' disease kills 18 in Nigeria [   ?   ]

by Agence France-Presse  

Illness claims the lives of victims within 24 hours of them contracting the symptoms, which include headache, weight loss and loss of consciousness  - A “mysterious” disease that kills patients within 24 hours has claimed at least 18 lives in a south-eastern Nigerian town, the government said.

(…)

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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome #Coronavirus “#MERS-CoV”: Current #Knowledge Gaps (Science Direct, abstract, edited)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Paediatric Respiratory Reviews / Available online 18 April 2015 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus “MERS-CoV”: Current Knowledge Gaps [      ]

G.R. Banik, G. Khandaker, H. Rashid

doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2015.04.002

 

Summary

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans is now considered a pandemic threat to the Gulf region. Since its discovery in 2012, MERS-CoV has reached 23 countries affecting over 1000 people, including a dozen children, and claiming over 400 lives. Compared to SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV appears to kill more people (40% versus 10%), more quickly, and is especially more severe in those with pre-existing medical conditions. Most MERS-CoV cases (>85%) reported thus far have a history of residence in, or travel to the Middle East. The current epidemiology is characterised by slow and sustained transmission with occasional sparks. The dromedary camel is the intermediate host of MERS-CoV, but the transmission cycle is not fully understood. In this current review, we have briefly summarised the latest information on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of MERS-CoV especially highlighting the knowledge gaps in its transmission dynamics, diagnosis and preventive strategy.

Keywords: Dromedary; MERS-CoV; Middle East; respiratory tract infection; SARS; transmission chain

Corresponding author. National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, Australia

Copyright © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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#Nigeria '#mystery #disease' kills 18 (BBC News, April 19 2015)

[Source: BBC, full page: (LINK).]

Nigeria 'mystery disease' kills 18 [   ?   ]

A "mysterious" disease has killed at least 18 people in the past several days in south-eastern Nigeria, local officials say.

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#Avian #influenza [#H5] confirmed on second #farm in Southern #Ontario (Govt of #Canada News Centre, April 19 2015)

[Source: Government of Canada, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Avian influenza confirmed on second farm in Southern Ontario [      ]

OTTAWA, April 18, 2015

Preliminary testing by the Province of Ontario has confirmed the presence of H5 avian influenza on a second farm in Oxford County, Ontario. The farm is a broiler breeder chicken farm.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has placed the farm under quarantine to control disease spread and the poultry industry has been notified to adopt enhanced biosecurity practices. Further testing by the CFIA is underway to confirm pathogenicity and to determine the precise subtype and strain of the virus. Pathogenicity refers to the severity of the illness caused in birds.

Avian influenza does not pose a risk to food safety when poultry and poultry products are properly handled and cooked. Avian influenza rarely affects humans that do not have consistent contact with infected birds. Public health authorities stand ready to take precautionary measures as warranted.

Initial tests for the disease were conducted on April 17, 2015 at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, after the chicken farm experienced sudden deaths of birds over several days.

All birds on the infected premises will be humanely destroyed and disposed of, in accordance with provincial environmental regulations and internationally accepted disease control guidelines. As lead response agency the CFIA will ensure the quarantine of the infected farm, and determine a surrounding surveillance zone for further testing and movement control measures. The CFIA will also lead on required depopulation of birds, while the Province will provide technical support on required carcass disposal. Once all birds have been removed, the CFIA will oversee the cleaning and disinfection of the barns, vehicles, equipment and tools to eliminate any infectious material that may remain.

The Province of Ontario, the CFIA, the owner of the infected birds, and the poultry industry are working closely together to manage the situation. Both levels of government will work with the poultry industry to address issues as they emerge. The Canadian poultry sector currently practices a high level of biosecurity that reduces the risk of disease spread.

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Contact: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Media Relations, 613-773-6600

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18 Apr 2015

#Mystery #Illness Kills 17 in Southeastern #Nigeria (RIA Novosti, April 18 2015)

[Source: RIA Novosti, full page: (LINK).]

Mystery Illness Kills 17 in Southeastern Nigeria [   ?   ]

Seventeen people are dead after succumbing to a yet to be identified deadly disease in a southeastern Nigerian town, the government said on Saturday.

(…)

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Au #Liberia, des #agents bloquent l’accès au centre anti- #Ebola pour réclamer le paiement de primes (Le Monde.fr, April 18 2015)

[Source: Le Monde, full page: (LINK).]

Au Liberia, des agents bloquent l’accès au centre anti-Ebola pour réclamer le paiement de primes [      ]

Des employés locaux de Médecins sans frontières exigent le paiement de primes de risque dûs par le gouvernement libérien.

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The rise in #stunting in relation to #avian #influenza and #food consumption patterns in Lower #Egypt in comparison to Upper Egypt: results from 2005 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys (BMC Public Health., abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Public Health. 2015 Mar 25;15(1):285. [Epub ahead of print]

The rise in stunting in relation to avian influenza and food consumption patterns in Lower Egypt in comparison to Upper Egypt: results from 2005 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys. [      ]

Kavle JA1,2, El-Zanaty F3, Landry M4, Galloway R5,6.

Author information: 1Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), 1776 Massachusetts Ave NW, Suite 300, Washington DC, WA, USA. jkavle@path.org. 2PATH, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN), 455 Massachusetts Ave NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC, WA, 20001, USA. jkavle@path.org. 3El-Zanaty and Associates, Cairo, Egypt. fzanaty@elzanaty.com. 4Department of Prevention and Community Health, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington DC, WA, USA. mmlandry@gwmail.gwu.edu. 5Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), 1776 Massachusetts Ave NW, Suite 300, Washington DC, WA, USA. rgalloway@path.org. 6PATH, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN), 455 Massachusetts Ave NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC, WA, 20001, USA. rgalloway@path.org.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A 2006 avian influenza (AI) outbreak resulted in mass removal of chickens in Lower Egypt, which decreased the household supply of poultry. Poultry, a key animal-source food, contains nutrients critical for child growth. This paper examines determinants of stunting between 2006 and 2008 in children 6 to 59 months of age within the context of the AI outbreak.

METHODS:

The 2005 and 2008 nationally representative Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) were used to analyse anthropometric data from 7,794 children in 2005 and 6,091 children in 2008. Children, 6-59 months of age, with length for age Z-score < -2 S.D. were categorized as stunted. Predictors of stunting were examined by bivariate and multivariable analyses, focusing on Lower Egypt, where a rise in stunting occurred, and Upper Egypt, where stunting declined.

RESULTS:

Between 2005 and 2008, Upper Egypt experienced a significant decline in stunting (28.8 to 21.8%, P < 0.001). Lower Egypt experienced a significant rise in stunting (16.6 to 31.5%, P < 0.001), coinciding with the 2006 AI outbreak. In Lower Egypt (2008), households owning poultry were 41.7% less likely to have a stunted child [aOR 0.58; 95% CI (0.42, 0.81) P = 0.002], and 12-47 month old children were 2.12-2.34 times [95% CI (1.39 - 3.63) P ≤ 0.001] more likely to be stunted than 6-11 month old children. Older children were likely affected by AI, as these children were either in-utero or toddlers in 2006. In Upper Egypt, stunting peaked at 12-23 months [aOR 2.62, 95% CI (1.73-3.96), P < 0.001], with lowered risk (22-32%) of stunting in 24-47 month old children [aOR1.65, 95% 1.07-2.53, P = 0.022, 24-35 month old] and [aOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.43, P = 0.043 36-47 months old]. A two-fold increase in child consumption of sugary foods between 2005 and 2008 was found in Lower Egypt (24.5% versus 52.7%; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Decreased dietary diversity, reduced poultry consumption, substitution of nutritious foods with sugary foods paralleled a reduction in household raising of birds, following the AI outbreak in Lower Egypt and not Upper Egypt. Increased feeding of sugary foods due to fear of illness or greater penetration of these foods may be related to stunting. Advice on infant and young child feeding is needed to improve dietary intake and reduce sugary food consumption.

PMID: 25884171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Serial high-resolution #analysis of #blood #virome and host #cytokines expression profile of a #patient with fatal #H7N9 #infection by massively parallel RNA sequencing (Clin Microbiol Infect., abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Apr 13. pii: S1198-743X(15)00370-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.03.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Serial high-resolution analysis of blood virome and host cytokines expression profile of a patient with fatal H7N9 infection by massively parallel RNA sequencing. [      ]

Hu Y1, Ren X1, Yang F1, Jin Q2.

Author information: 1MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. 2MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address: zdsys@vip.sina.com.

 

Abstract

Bloodstream infections and cytokine dysregulation are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality among patients with influenza virus H7N9 infection. Here, massively parallel RNA sequencing was used to serially analyse plasma viruses and cytokine transcriptomes of a fatal H7N9-related case at successive times throughout the clinical course of infection. The results showed that acute viraemia with H7N9 virus occurred, and the virus was sensitive to antiviral therapy with oseltamivir. In addition, a lot of genome sequences from Acinetobacter baumannii were detected in blood on day 18 after illness onset when the bacteria were cultured. In parallel, longitudinal mRNA expression patterns of host cytokines associated with infection were analysed. This study illustrated the potential of RNA-sequencing to explore the plasma virome and expression profile of the infected host cytokines simultaneously in infectious disease.

Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Blood virome; host cytokines; influenza virus A H7N9; massively parallel RNA sequencing; serial analysis

PMID: 25882353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Disastrous #Events and Political #Failures. (Prehosp. Disaster Med., abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015 Apr 17:1-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Disastrous Events and Political Failures. [      ]

Levett J1.

Author information: 1National School of Public Health,Department of Health Service Management,Athens,Greece.

 

Abstract

Response to the Ebola crisis (ongoing event) has been less than efficient. It has been monitored less than adequately by the international community and has been coordinated poorly in the USA. The event is used as a platform to examine deficiencies in public health infrastructure, the limits of its political and financial support, and how political outcomes can be affected. The need to tease out the political determinants implicit in policy failure and disaster management is argued in this Editorial. Failures mentioned include in the Balkans and in Greece with ongoing austerity. Comments on the real heroes of Ebola on the ground in Africa and the need for a charismatic role for political leaders in public health are also included. Levett J . Disastrous events and political failures. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):1 2.

KEYWORDS: SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome; WADEM World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine; public health

PMID: 25882131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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