23 Nov 2014

#Ebola: encore un nouveau #cas au #Mali (Mali Actu, November 23 2014)

[Source: Mali Actu, full page: (LINK).]

Ebola: encore un nouveau cas au Mali [      ]

by Mamadou Makadji  

Un nouveau porteur du virus Ebola a été révélé au Mali. Il est toujours vivant et en traitement sanitaire. Cette information intervient au moment où la directrice générale de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) est à Bamako pour encourager la lutte contre la maladie. Des deux derniers cas suspects, un seul patient a été […]

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Virus #Ebola : sept #décès au #Mali, un nouveau front s'ouvre à #Bamako (Le Temps d'Algérie, November 23 2014)

[Source: Le Temps d’Algérie, full page: (LINK).]

Virus Ebola : sept décès au Mali, un nouveau front s'ouvre à Bamako [      ]

Santé-Virus Ebola : sept décès au Mali, un nouveau front s'ouvre à Bamako. Une délégation de l'OMS se trouvait dimanche à Bamako pour mettre en œuvre avec les acteurs maliens un plan de riposte national contre l'épidémie d'Ebola qui menace d'embraser le Mali qui a enregistré sept morts au moment où certains pays annoncent avoir vaincu le virus, tandis que d'autres disent s'approcher de l'objectif zéro cas nouveau d'Ebola fixé pour fin décembre.

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#Ebola: la personne soignée en #France est guérie (Le Figaro, November 23 2014)

[Source: Le Figaro, full page: (LINK).]

Ebola: la personne soignée en France est guérie [   !   ]

La personne employée par une agence de l'Onu hospitalisée près de Paris après avoir contracté Ebola en Sierra Leone est guérie, a annoncé aujourd'hui le ministère de la Santé. "Elle a pu quitter l'hôpital ce matin et a quitté le territoire français", précise le ministère dans un communiqué...

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#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours (@SaudiMOH, November 23 2014, edited)

[Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours [      ][      ]

11/23/2014

_______

New Cases:

  • No reports

Earlier reported cases discharged from hospital:

  • No reports

Deaths in previously announced cases:

  • No reports

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23-11-2014-004.jpg

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La #OMS urge a #Mali a aumentar la sensibilización coincidiendo con un nuevo contagio de #ebola (rtve.es, November 23 2014)

[Source: RTVE, full page: (LINK).]

La OMS urge a Mali a aumentar la sensibilización coincidiendo con un nuevo contagio de Ébola [      ]

La directora de la OMS, Margaret Chan, ha estado de visita en Bamako  / Chan ha pedido que se controlen determinadas prácticas culturales de riesgo / Leer la noticia completa

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#Strategies for #containing #Ebola in West #Africa. (Science, abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Science. 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):991-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1260612. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Strategies for containing Ebola in West Africa. [      ]

Pandey A1, Atkins KE2, Medlock J3, Wenzel N1, Townsend JP4, Childs JE5, Nyenswah TG6, Ndeffo-Mbah ML1, Galvani AP7.

Author information: 1Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. 2Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA. 4Department of Biostatistics, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. 5Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. 6Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Monrovia, Liberia. 7Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. alison.galvani@yale.edu.

 

Abstract

The ongoing Ebola outbreak poses an alarming risk to the countries of West Africa and beyond. To assess the effectiveness of containment strategies, we developed a stochastic model of Ebola transmission between and within the general community, hospitals, and funerals, calibrated to incidence data from Liberia. We find that a combined approach of case isolation, contact-tracing with quarantine, and sanitary funeral practices must be implemented with utmost urgency in order to reverse the growth of the outbreak. As of 19 September, under status quo, our model predicts that the epidemic will continue to spread, generating a predicted 224 (134 to 358) daily cases by 1 December, 280 (184 to 441) by 15 December, and 348 (249 to 545) by 30 December.

Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

PMID: 25414312 [PubMed - in process]

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#Potential and #Emerging #Treatment Options for #Ebola Virus Disease. (Ann Pharmacother., abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ann Pharmacother. 2014 Nov 20. pii: 1060028014561227. [Epub ahead of print]

Potential and Emerging Treatment Options for Ebola Virus Disease. [      ]

Bishop BM.

Author information: St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Rudolph H. Raabe College of Pharmacy at Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH, USA bryan.bishop.2006@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the current Ebola virus epidemic and the potential options for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

DATA SOURCES:

A PubMed literature search (1976 through October 20, 2014) was conducted using the search term Ebola.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:

Animal and human studies published in English were selected. Studies published within the past 5 years were the primary focus of this review.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

The current Ebola virus epidemic has primarily been contained in West Africa though it has subsequently spread to other areas, including the United States. The first patient in the United States infected with Ebola virus was diagnosed, treated, and expired in Texas. Two nurses caring for this patient also were diagnosed with Ebola virus and have been successfully treated. Treatment options for patients infected with Ebola virus are limited. Supportive therapy is centered on fluid resuscitation, electrolyte imbalance correction, treating complicating infections, and preventing complications of shock. Experimental therapies (ZMapp, brincidofovir, TKM-Ebola, and favipiravir) have been used during this current outbreak. Several medications such as amiodarone, chloroquine, and clomiphene may prevent the transmission of or treat Ebola virus. Different vaccine therapies are also in early-stage development. One of the vaccine strategies using recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus as a delivery vector has demonstrated efficacy when used for preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION:

Ebola virus is highly virulent and fatal, and treatment options are limited. Several experimental and existing therapies may be options for preventing and treating Ebola virus disease.

© The Author(s) 2014.

KEYWORDS: Ebola; Ebola treatment; Ebola vaccine; Ebola virus; antivirals

PMID: 25414384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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#Reidentification of #Ebola Virus E718 and ME as Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran (Genome Announc., abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genome Announc. 2014 Nov 20;2(6). pii: e01178-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01178-14.

Reidentification of Ebola Virus E718 and ME as Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran. [      ]

Kuhn JH1, Lofts LL2, Kugelman JR2, Smither SJ3, Lever MS3, van der Groen G4, Johnson KM5, Radoshitzky SR2, Bavari S2, Jahrling PB6, Towner JS7, Nichol ST7, Palacios G2.

Author information: 1Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA kuhnjens@mail.nih.gov. 2United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA. 3Biomedical Sciences Department, Dstl, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom. 4Prins Leopold Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskunde (ITG), Antwerp, Belgium. 5Retired, Portland, Oregon, USA. 6Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA. 7Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

 

Abstract

Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered in 1976 around Yambuku, Zaire. A lack of nomenclature standards resulted in a variety of designations for each isolate, leading to confusion in the literature and databases. We sequenced the genome of isolate E718/ME/Ecran and unified the various designations under Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran.

Copyright © 2014 Kuhn et al.

PMID: 25414499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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22 Nov 2014

#Host cell #proteases: Critical determinants of #coronavirus #tropism and #pathogenesis (ScienceDirect, abstract, edited)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Research, Available online 22 November 2014 - In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Host cell proteases: Critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis [      ]

Jean Kaoru Millet, Gary R. Whittaker / doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.11.021

 

Highlights

  • Coronavirus spike proteins can be cleaved by a multitude of host cell proteases.
  • Proteolytic activation of spike is a crucial step to activate its fusogenicity.
  • The spike protein can be cleaved at multiple sites.
  • Modulation of spike cleavage can have profound effects on tropism and pathogenesis.

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses are a large group of enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of avian and mammalian species, including humans. The emergence of deadly human coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have bolstered research in these viral and often zoonotic pathogens. While coronavirus cell and tissue tropism, host range, and pathogenesis are initially controlled by interactions between the spike envelope glycoprotein and host cell receptor, it is becoming increasingly apparent that proteolytic activation of spike by host cell proteases also plays a critical role. Coronavirus spike proteins are the main determinant of entry as they possess both receptor binding and fusion functions. Whereas binding to the host cell receptor is an essential first step in establishing infection, the proteolytic activation step is often critical for the fusion function of spike, as it allows for controlled release of the fusion peptide into target cellular membranes. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple strategies for proteolytic activation of spike, and a large number of host proteases have been shown to proteolytically process the spike protein. These include, but are not limited to, endosomal cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, and trypsin. This review focuses on the diversity of strategies coronaviruses have evolved to proteolytically activate their fusion protein during spike protein biosynthesis and the critical entry step of their life cycle, and highlights important findings on how proteolytic activation of coronavirus spike influences tissue and cell tropism, host range and pathogenicity.

Keywords: Cleavage activation; Coronavirus; Pathogenesis; Protease; Spike protein; Tropism; Viral fusion

Corresponding author. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Veterinary Medical Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States, Tel.: +1 607 253 4019.

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#Saudi Arabia tackles #MERS virus, still hunting #source (Gulf times, November 22 2014)

[Source: Gulf Times, full page: (LINK).]

Saudi Arabia tackles MERS virus, still hunting source [      ]

Saudi Arabia has not yet traced the source of a mysterious camel virus, leaving many questions about a disease that has killed 346 people ...

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