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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

26 May 2017

#Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 11 – As of May 24 2017 (@WHO AFRO, edited)


Title: #Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 11 – As of May 24 2017.

Subject: EVD outbreak in Likati Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for the Africa Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of Congo – Situation Report 11 – As of May 24 2017

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC.

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Weekly #US #Influenza #Surveillance #Report - 2016-17 Season, Wk 20 ending May 20 ‘17 (@CDCgov, summary)


Title: Weekly #US #Influenza #Surveillance #Report - 2016-17 Season, Wk 20 ending May 20 ‘17.

Subject: Human Influenza Viruses, seasonal winter epidemics, current situation in the US.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), FluView, full page: (LINK). Summary.

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Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report - 2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 20 ending May 20, 2017

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Language: [ English (US) | Español ]

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|-- Full report also available as PDF

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All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.


Synopsis:

    • During week 20 (May 14-20, 2017), influenza activity decreased in the United States.
  • Viral Surveillance:
    • The most frequently identified influenza virus type reported by public health laboratories during week 20 was influenza B.
    • The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality:
    • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths:
    • Three influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations:
    • A cumulative rate for the season of 65.2 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance:
    • The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 1.3%, which is below the national baseline of 2.2%.
    • All ten regions reported ILI below their region-specific baseline levels.
    • One state experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 49 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza:
    • The geographic spread of influenza in Guam and two states was reported as regional; Puerto Rico and nine states reported local activity; the District of Columbia and 34 states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands and five states reported no activity.

(…)

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Seasonal Influenza.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, May 26 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in Germany.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Germany

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Information received on 26/05/2017 from Dr. Karin Schwabenbauer, Ministerial Dirigentin and Chief Veterinary Officer , Directorate of Animal Health, Animal Welfare, Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) , Bonn, Germany

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 30
    • Date of start of the event    07/11/2016
    • Date of confirmation of the event    08/11/2016
    • Report date    26/05/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    26/05/2017
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    09/2015
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 3
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of – Slaughtered
        • Anatidae (unidentified):Anatidae (incognita)(Anatidae) – … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Accipitridae (unidentified):Accipitridae (incognita)(Accipitridae)  - … – 2    - 2    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Anatidae (unidentified):Anatidae (incognita)(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Accipitridae (unidentified):Accipitridae (incognita)(Accipitridae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • All poultry have been culled and safely disposed of.
    • No poultry or poultry products have been dispatched.
    • Epidemiological investigations started.


(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Germany.

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#Zika virus #infection – #India (@WHO, May 26 ‘17)


Title: #Zika virus #infection – #India.

Subject: Zika Virus Infection, current epidemiological situation in India.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

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Zika virus infection – India

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Disease Outbreak News / 26 May 2017

On 15 May 2017, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare-Government of India (MoHFW) reported three laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in Bapunagar area, Ahmedabad District, Gujarat, State, India.

The routine laboratory surveillance detected a laboratory-confirmed case of Zika virus disease through RT-PCR test at B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

The etiology of this case has been further confirmed through a positive RT-PCR test and sequencing at the national reference laboratory, National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune on 4 January 2017 (case 2, below).

Two additional cases (case 1 and case 3), have then been identified through the Acute Febrile Illness (AFI) and the Antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance.

The cases are reported below in chronological order:

  • Case 1:
    • During the Acute Febrile Illness (AFI) surveillance between 10 to 16 February 2016, a total of 93 blood samples were collected at BJ Medical College (BJMC), Ahmedabad, Gujarat State.
    • One sample from a 64-year-old male presenting with febrile illness of 8 days’ duration (negative for dengue infection) was found to be positive for Zika virus at BJMC, Ahmedabad.
    • This is the first Zika positive case reported through AFI surveillance at BJMC, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State.
  • Case 2:
    • A 34-year-old female, delivered a clinically well baby at BJMC in Ahmedabad on 9 November 2016.
    • During her hospital stay, she developed a low grade fever after delivery.
    • No history of fever during pregnancy and no history of travel for the past three months was reported.
    • A sample from the patient was referred to the Viral Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL) at the BJMC for dengue testing and thereafter found to be positive for Zika virus.
    • She was discharged after one week (on 16 November 2016).
    • The sample was re-confirmed as Zika virus positive by RT-PCR and sequencing at NIV, Pune.
  • Case 3:
    • During the Antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance between 6 and 12 January 2017, a total of 111 blood samples were collected at BJMC.
    • One sample from a 22-year-old pregnant female in her 37th week of pregnancy has been tested positive for Zika virus disease.


Public health response

  • National Guidelines and Action Plan on Zika virus disease have been shared with the States to prevent an outbreak of Zika virus disease and containment of spread in case of any outbreak.
  • An Inter-Ministerial Task Force has been set up under the Chairmanship of Secretary (Health and Family Welfare) together with Secretary (Bio-Technology), and Secretary (Department of Health Research). The Joint Monitoring Group, a technical group tasked to monitor emerging and re-emerging diseases is regularly reviewing the global situation on Zika virus disease.
  • All the international airports and ports have displayed information for travellers on Zika virus disease.
  • The airport health officers along with airport organizations, National Centre for Disease Control, and the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme are monitoring appropriate vector control measures in airport premises.
  • The Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) is tracking for clustering of acute febrile illness in the community.
  • In addition to National Institute of Virology, Pune, and NCDC in Delhi, 25 laboratories have also been strengthened by Indian Council of Medical Research for laboratory diagnosis. In addition, 3 entomological laboratories are conducting Zika virus testing on mosquito samples.
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has tested 34 233 human samples and 12 647 mosquito samples for the presence of Zika virus. Among those, close to 500 mosquitos samples were collected from Bapunagar area, Ahmedabad District, in Gujarat, and were found negative for Zika.
  • The Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) is monitoring microcephaly from 55 sentinel sites. As of now, no increase in number of cases or clustering of microcephaly has been reported from these centers.
  • Risk communication materials are being finalized by the Central Health Education Bureau, in consultation with UNICEF.


WHO risk assessment

This report is important as it describes the first cases of Zika virus infections and provides evidence on the circulation of the virus in India.

These findings suggest low level transmission of Zika virus and new cases may occur in the future.

Efforts to strengthen surveillance should be maintained in order to better characterize the intensity of the viral circulation and geographical spread, and monitor Zika virus related complications.

Zika virus is known to be circulating in South East Asia Region and these findings do not change the global risk assessment.

WHO encourages Member states to report similar findings to better understand the global epidemiology of Zika virus.

The risk of further spread of Zika virus to areas where the competent vectors, the Aedes mosquitoes, are present is significant given the wide geographical distribution of these mosquitoes in various regions of the world.

WHO continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and conduct risk assessment based on the latest available information.


WHO advice

Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people. During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.

Basic precautions for protection from mosquito bites should be taken by people traveling to high risk areas, especially pregnant women. These include use of repellents, wearing light colored, long sleeved shirts and pants and ensuring rooms are fitted with screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering.

WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restriction to India based on the current information available.

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Keywords: India; Zika Virus; Updates; WHO.

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Raised levels of #parvovirus B19 #activity in #England and #Wales (@PHE_uk, May 26 ‘17)


Title: Raised levels of #parvovirus B19 #activity in #England and #Wales.

Subject: Parvovirus B19, activity monitoring in England and Wales.

Source: Public Health England, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Infection report / Volume 11, Number 19 - Published on: 26 May 2017

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Raised levels of parvovirus B19 activity in England and Wales

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Summary

  • Parvovirus B19 causes the common childhood illness, erythema infectiosum or fifth disease [1] – widely known as “slapped cheek” due to the typical presentation of erythematous cheeks which, together with rash and fever, are characteristic of this disease.
  • Accurate diagnosis on a clinical basis can be difficult however and parvovirus B19 infection cannot be clearly differentiated from other infections such as rubella.
  • There has been an increase in reported cases of parvovirus B19 in the early weeks of 2017 although activity has not reached the levels seen in 2013, the previous peak year (Figure).
  • Parvovirus B19 is not a notifiable disease and testing practice is likely to vary around the country: with the exception of women presenting with a rash illness in pregnancy, there is no recommendation for routine testing for parvovirus B19.
  • Infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy is associated with increased risk of intrauterine death and hydrops fetalis.
  • Infection usually presents as a mild febrile illness but in patients with increased red blood cell turnover (ie underlying haemolytic haemoglobulinopathies such as sickle cell disease) infection can lead to transient aplastic crisis, and in patients who are immunocompromised infection may lead to pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia.
  • Both these groups of patients have high level viraemia and should be considered infectious.
  • Health Protection Teams and clinicians should be aware that there are NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries [2] and national guidelines for managing the infection in healthcare settings, the community [3] and in pregnant women [4].


References

  1. Brown KE. Parvovirus B19 infection in the fetus and child (2007). In: David TJ (editor). Recent advances in paediatrics, RSM Press (London), 209-22.
  2. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries: Parvovirus B19 infection, https://cks.nice.org.uk/parvovirus-b19-infection.
  3. Crowcroft NS, Roth CE, Cohen BJ, Miller E (1999). Guidance for control of Parvovirus B19 infection in healthcare settings and the community. J Public Health 21(4): 439-446.
  4. PHE website. Parvovirus B19: Guidance, Data and Analysis (health protection detailed guide) https://www.gov.uk/guidance/parvovirus-b19.

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PHE publications gateway number: 2017083.

© Crown copyright 2017

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Keywords: England; Wales; UK; Updates; Parvovirus B19.

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#HK CHP notified of nine #human cases of #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) in #China (May 26 ‘17)


Title: #HK CHP notified of nine #human cases of #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) in #China.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human cases in China.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

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CHP notified of human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) in Mainland

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (May 26) is monitoring a notification from the National Health and Family Planning Commission that nine additional human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) were recorded from May 19 to 25, and strongly urges the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The nine male patients, aged 36 to 74, had onset from May 7 to 24.

Three of them are from Sichuan and one each from Beijing, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanxi and Zhejiang.

Among them, eight were known to have exposure to poultry, poultry markets or mobile stalls.

(…)

The public may visit the CHP's pages for more information:

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China.

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#Wolbachia infected about 90% of #Aedes Aegypti #mosquitoes in a #Niteroi neighborhood, experts said (#FIOCRUZ, May 26 ‘17)


Title: Wolbachia infected about 90% of Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes in a Niteroi neighborhood, experts said.

Subject: Arboviral infections, Wolbachia infection of vector mosquitoes in Brazil.

Source: Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil, full page: (LINK). Article in Portuguese, edited.

Code: [  R  ]

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25/05/2017

Eliminar a dengue: Wolbachia foi transmitida para 90% dos Aedes aegypti em bairro de Niterói

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Por: Camile de Oliveira (Projeto Eliminar a Dengue/Fiocruz)

O projeto Eliminar a Dengue: Desafio Brasil, conduzido pela Fiocruz, confirma sua nova taxa de sucesso em 90% de presença de Aedes aegypti com Wolbachia no Ponto Final, em Jurujuba, bairro de Niterói onde foi implementado o projeto-piloto. Neste momento, a fase de expansão avança para bairros da Região Oceânica do município. Com equipe presente nos bairros de Cafubá, Jacaré, Jardim Ibuí, Piratininga, Santo Antônio e Camboinhas, o projeto promove atividades de informação, conhecimento e engajamento comunitário para que, em breve, possa prosseguir com a liberação dos Aedes aegypti com Wolbachia. A iniciativa da Fiocruz ajudará a proteger mais 32 mil habitantes dessas doenças.

“O aumento da frequência de mosquitos Aedes aegypti com Wolbachia no Ponto Final, em Jurujuba (área do projeto-piloto), é considerado um resultado extremamente satisfatório e corrobora a autossustentabilidade do método. Agradecemos a população do Ponto Final, de toda Jurujuba e também da Região Oceânica, onde atuamos no momento, pelo contínuo apoio recebido desde o início das nossas atividades no município”, reforça Luciano Moreira, pesquisador responsável pela iniciativa no Brasil.


Projeto

O projeto Eliminar a Dengue: Desafio Brasil propõe um método capaz de reduzir a transmissão dos vírus da dengue, zika e chikungunya pela liberação de mosquitos Aedes aegypti com a bactéria Wolbachia. Essa bactéria é natural, pois existe em muitos outros insetos. A iniciativa é parte do programa internacional Eliminate Dengue: Our Challenge, com participação do pesquisador da Fiocruz Luciano Moreira, que lidera o projeto no Brasil. A metodologia consistiu na inoculação da bactéria Wolbachia, retirada da mosca da fruta, no ovo do Aedes aegypti, para que desta forma o inseto se desenvolva com a bactéria no seu organismo de forma intracelular.

O projeto propõe a liberação dos mosquitos Aedes aegypti com Wolbachia em uma área por um determinado período de tempo, proporcionado a substituição gradual da população de mosquitos Aedes aegypti de campo pelos mosquitos com a bactéria Wolbachia. Esta substituição ocorre mediante o cruzamento entre eles, com a transmissão da bactéria pela fêmea aos seus filhotes. Desta forma, o método torna-se autossustentável, uma vez que naturalmente a bactéria vai se perpetuar nas gerações futuras dos mosquitos.

“O método não envolve nenhuma modificação genética e é complementar a todos que já existem para proteção e combate às doenças. É uma iniciativa inovadora, sem fins lucrativos, autossustentável, porque não exige a sua contínua implementação na área, além de ser segura, porque não tem qualquer influência em seres humanos e no meio ambiente”, explica Moreira.

(…)

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Keywords: Brazil; Research; Wolbachia; Aedes Aegypti; Flavivirus; Arbovirus.

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#China, #Sichuan province reported one new #human case of #H7N9 #influenza in Meishan City (Sina, May 26 ‘17)


Title: China, Sichuan province reported one new case of H7N9 influenza in Meishan City.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human case in Sichuan province of China.

Source: Sina, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

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China, Sichuan province reported one new case of H7N9 influenza in Meishan City

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On the evening of May 25, Sichuan Meishan City People's Government issued a notice: on May 25, by the Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control confirmed the county's first person infected with H7N9 avian Flu virus; the case is currently hospitalized.

The case is a male, 67 years old, who lives in Renshou County Zhangjia town, home with more than ten chickens, one of the chickens appear sick.

According to the family members of the patient, he [had not] slaughtered chickens and other poultry contact history, symptoms onset was reported on May 17 with fever, cough and other symptoms, rushed to Zhangjia town private clinic, but went to the hospital fro treatment, due to exacerbations of the illness on May 23 at  Renshou County people Hospital.

At present the patient is in critical condition.

(…)

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Keywords: China; Sichuan; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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25 May 2017

#Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 10 – May 25 2017 (@WHO AFRO, edited)


Title: #Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 10 – May 25 2017.

Subject: EVD outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, situation update.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for Africa Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of Congo – Situation Report 10 – May 25 2017

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Keywords: Ebola; DRC; Updates; WHO.

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#Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 9 – May 23 2017 (@WHO AFRO)


Title: #Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 9 – May 23 2017.

Subject: EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for Africa Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of Congo – Situation Report 9 – May 23 2017

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Keywords: Ebola; Updates; DRC; WHO.

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