31 Oct 2014

#Mali: Après le décès de la fillette Fanta Kondé atteinte d’ #Ebola : Aucun #dispositif n’a été pris par les autorités pour la mise en #quarantaine de la famille d’accueil (Mali Actu, October 31 2014)

[Source: Mali Actu, full page: (LINK).]

Mali: Après le décès de la fillette Fanta Kondé atteinte d’Ebola : Aucun dispositif n’a été pris par les autorités pour la mise en quarantaine de la famille d’accueil [      ]

En faisant un tour dans le quartier populeux de Bagadadji en commune II du District de Bamako on se rend vite compte que contrairement aux propos des agents du ministère de la Santé, il n’y a aucun dispositif spécifique pour empêcher les membres de la famille de sortir. Il en est de même pour un visiteur qui entend s’y rendre. Malgré tout, la méfiance des habitants vis-à-vis d’eux est très perceptible.

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#WHO says 2 suspected #Ebola cases in #Mali, 57 contacts sought (Yahoo News, October 31 2014)

[Source: Yahoo, full page: (LINK).]

WHO says 2 suspected Ebola cases in Mali, 57 contacts sought [      ]

GENEVA (Reuters) - Two people are suspected of having Ebola after coming into contact with a two-year-old girl who died of the disease in Mali last week, according to data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.

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First #Ebola #Suspect Hospitalized in #Finland (RIA Novosti, October 31 2014)

[Source: RIA Novosti, full page: (LINK).]

First Ebola Suspect Hospitalized in Finland [      ]

15:03 31/10/2014

MOSCOW, October 31 (RIA Novosti) - A man with Ebola-like symptoms was taken to a Helsinki hospital Thursday evening, Yle News reported on Friday.

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#Topographic heterogeneity effect on the #accumulation of #Fukushima-derived #radiocesium on #forest floor driven by biologically mediated processes (Scientific Reports, abstract, edited)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Topographic heterogeneity effect on the accumulation of Fukushima-derived radiocesium on forest floor driven by biologically mediated processes [      ]

Jun Koarashi,1, Mariko Atarashi-Andoh,1, Erina Takeuchi1, & Syusaku Nishimura1

Journal name: Scientific Reports - Volume: 4, Article number: 6853 - DOI: doi:10.1038/srep06853

Received 03 July 2014 - Accepted 10 October 2014 - Published 31 October 2014

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The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems located in mountainous and hilly regions with steep terrain. To understand topographic effects on the redistribution and accumulation of 137Cs on forest floor, we investigated the distribution of Fukushima-derived 137Cs in forest-floor litter layers on a steep hillslope in a Japanese deciduous forest in August 2013 (29 months after the accident). Both leaf-litter materials and litter-associated 137Cs were accumulated in large amounts at the bottom of the hillslope. At the bottom, a significant fraction (65%) of the 137Cs inventory was observed to be associated with newly shed and less degraded leaf-litter materials, with estimated mean ages of 0.5–1.5 years, added via litterfall after the accident. Newly emerged leaves were contaminated with Fukushima-derived 137Cs in May 2011 (two months after the accident) and 137Cs concentration in them decreased with time. However, the concentrations were still two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level in 2013 and 2014. These observations are the first to show that 137Cs redistribution on a forested hillslope is strongly controlled by biologically mediated processes and continues to supply 137Cs to the bottom via litterfall at a reduced rate.

Subject terms: Forest ecology • Biogeochemistry • Environmental sciences

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#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours (@SaudiMOH, October 31 2014, edited)

[Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours [      ][      ]

10/31/2014

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New Cases:

  • No reports

Earlier reported cases discharged from hospital:

  • No reports

Deaths in previously announced cases:

  • No reports

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#Safety and #immunogenicity of a modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara-based #influenza A #H5N1 #vaccine: a randomised, double-blind phase 1/2a clinical trial (The Lancet Infect Dis., abstract, edited)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Early Online Publication, 30 October 2014 / doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70963-6

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Safety and immunogenicity of a modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara-based influenza A H5N1 vaccine: a randomised, double-blind phase 1/2a clinical trial [      ]

Original Text

Joost H C M Kreijtz PhD a, Marco Goeijenbier MD a, Fleur M Moesker MD a, Lennert van den Dries MD a, Simone Goeijenbier BSc a, Heidi L M De Gruyter BSc a, Michael H Lehmann PhD b c, Gerrie de Mutsert BSc a, David A M C van de Vijver PhD a, Asisa Volz PhD b c, Prof Ron A M Fouchier PhD a, Prof Eric C M van Gorp MD a, Prof Guus F Rimmelzwaan PhD a, Prof Gerd Sutter DVM b c, Prof Albert D M E Osterhaus DVM a d e

 

Summary

Background

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising viral vector platform for the development of an H5N1 influenza vaccine. Preclinical assessment of MVA-based H5N1 vaccines showed their immunogenicity and safety in different animal models. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the MVA-haemagglutinin-based H5N1 vaccine MVA-H5-sfMR in healthy individuals.

Methods

In a single-centre, double-blind phase 1/2a study, young volunteers (aged 18—28 years) were randomly assigned with a computer-generated list in equal numbers to one of eight groups and were given one injection or two injections intramuscularly at an interval of 4 weeks of a standard dose (108 plaque forming units [pfu]) or a ten times lower dose (107 pfu) of the MVA-H5-sfMR (vector encoding the haemagglutinin gene of influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 virus [H5N1 subtype]) or MVA-F6-sfMR (empty vector) vaccine. Volunteers and physicians who examined and administered the vaccine were masked to vaccine assignment. Individuals who received the MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine were eligible for a booster immunisation 1 year after the first immunisation. Primary endpoint was safety. Secondary outcome was immunogenicity. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, number NTR3401.

Findings

79 of 80 individuals who were enrolled completed the study. No serious adverse events were identified. 11 individuals reported severe headache and lightheadedness, erythema nodosum, respiratory illness (accompanied by influenza-like symptoms), sore throat, or injection-site reaction. Most of the volunteers had one or more local (itch, pain, redness, and swelling) and systemic reactions (rise in body temperature, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, malaise, and fatigue) after the first, second, and booster immunisations. Individuals who received the 107 dose had fewer systemic reactions. The MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine at 108 pfu induced significantly higher antibody responses after one and two immunisations than did 107 pfu when assessed with haemagglutination inhibition geometric mean titre at 8 weeks against H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (30·2 [SD 3·8] vs 9·2 [2·3] and 108·1 [2·4] vs 15·8 [3·2]). 27 of 39 eligible individuals were enrolled in the booster immunisation study. A single shot of MVA-H5-sfMR 108 pfu prime immunisation resulted in higher antibody responses after the booster immunisation than did two shots of MVA-H5-sfMR at the ten times lower dose.

Interpretation

The MVA-based H5N1 vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic and therefore the vaccine candidates arising from the MVA platform hold great promise for rapid development in response to a future influenza pandemic threat. However, the immunogenicity of this vaccine needs to be compared with conventional H5N1 inactivated non-adjuvanted vaccine candidates in head-to-head clinical trials.

Funding

European Research Council.

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a Viroscience Lab, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; b Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany; c German Centre for Infection Research, Munich, Germany; d Artemis, Utrecht, Netherlands; e Center for Infection Medicine and Zoonoses Research, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Correspondence to: Prof Albert D M E Osterhaus, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands

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#Internet and #Free #Press Are Associated with Reduced #Lags in #Global #Outbreak #Reporting (PLOS Currents Outbreaks, abstract, edited)

[Source: PLoS Currents Outbreaks, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Internet and Free Press Are Associated with Reduced Lags in Global Outbreak Reporting [      ]

October 30, 2014 · Research

Citation: McAlarnen L, Smith K, Brownstein JS, Jerde C. Internet and Free Press Are Associated with Reduced Lags in Global Outbreak Reporting. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014 Oct 30. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.cecdec16fa17091eea4c4a725dba9e16.

[PDF, XML]

Authors: Lindsey McAlarnen Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. Katherine Smith Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. John S. Brownstein Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Christopher Jerde Environmental Change Initiative & Dept. of Biological, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA.

 

Abstract

Background:

Global outbreak detection and reporting have generally improved for a variety of infectious diseases and geographic regions in recent decades. Nevertheless, lags in outbreak reporting remain a threat to the global human health and economy. In the time between first occurrence of a novel disease incident and public notification of an outbreak, infected individuals have a greater possibility of traveling and spreading the pathogen to other nations. Shortening outbreak reporting lags has the potential to improve global health by preventing local outbreaks from escalating into global epidemics.

Methods:

Reporting lags between the first record and the first public report of an event were calculated for 318 outbreaks occurring 1996-2009. The influence of freedom of the press, Internet usage, per capita health expenditure, and cell phone subscriptions, on the timeliness of outbreak reporting was evaluated.

Results:

Freer presses and increasing Internet usage correlate with reduced time between the first record of an outbreak and the public report. Increasing Internet usage reduced the expected reporting lag from more than one month in nations without Internet users to one day in those where 75 of 100 people use the Internet.

Conclusion:

Advances in technology and the emergence of more open and free governments are associated with to improved global infectious disease surveillance.

Funding Statement

The work was supported by the Synthesizing and Predicting Infectious Disease with Endogenous Risk (SPIDER) Working Group at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, sponsored by the NSF, the USDHS, and the USDA through Award #EF-0832858, with additional support from The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This paper was also made possible in part by grant number 1R01GM100471-01 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health, the University of Notre Dame’s Environmental Change Initiative and Brown University’s Environmental Chance Initiative. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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#Mali: Gestion de l’ #épidémie a virus #Ebola : Le ministre de la #Santé se rend à Kayes (Mali Actu, October 31 2014)

[Source: Mali Actu, full page: (LINK).]

Mali: Gestion de l’épidémie a virus Ebola : Le ministre de la Santé se rend à Kayes [      ]

Le ministre de la Santé et de l’Hygiène publique a rendu, le mardi 28 octobre 2014, un vibrant hommage aux autorités et personnel de santé de la région de Kayes pour leur promptitude dans la prise en charge du seul cas confirmé de la maladie à virus Ebola enregistré le jeudi 23 octobre dernier.

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#Cyprus, Two [among ten] suspected #MERS #patients to be discharged in north (Cyprus Mail, October 31 2014)

[Source: Cyprus Mail, full page: (LINK).]

Two MERS patients to be discharged in north [      ]

By Evie Andreou

TWO of the ten patients suspected to suffer from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), are to be discharged, the Turkish Cypriot hospital treating them in the north announced on wednesday. The announcement said that the two patients’ symptoms have disappeared and a process was underway for their discharge.

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#Ebola, #Michigan #Monitoring #Residents in Accordance With Updated #Guidance (DoH, October 31 2014)

[Source: State of Michigan Department of health, full page: (LINK).]

Michigan Monitoring Residents in Accordance With Updated Guidance [      ]

Contact: Jennifer Smith 517-241-2112 / For Immediate Release: October 30, 2014

LANSING, Mich. – The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) is continuing its planning and preparedness efforts against the potential threat of Ebola in Michigan. MDCH has issued Michigan’s monitoring guidance to healthcare partners statewide, and will continue to monitor residents in accordance with recently updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines.

On Monday, Oct. 27, the CDC released updated guidelines for the monitoring of people who may have been exposed to the Ebola virus. Currently, Michigan is monitoring nine individuals and will be posting updates weekly at www.michigan.gov/ebola. Michigan had previously reported that 10 individuals were being monitored, however after further follow-up by MDCH and the local health department, it was determined that one individual did not complete their travel to Michigan.

“While there are no current cases of Ebola in Michigan, the active monitoring guidelines that Michigan is following will continue to allow us to be prepared to provide a coordinated response with our local public health, EMS, and hospital partners should a resident begin showing symptoms,” said Nick Lyon, Director of the Michigan Department of Community Health.

At this time, none of the individuals being monitored in Michigan are showing any symptoms, and Michigan is not releasing county detail about the residents. The individuals being monitored are all low-risk and have no known exposure to Ebola. The current nine residents being monitored are in twice daily contact with health officials for 21 days. These individuals are being monitored because of their recent travel history.

The twice daily active monitoring approach that Michigan is taking is a step beyond the CDC recommendations for those who are low risk. The CDC guidance for active monitoring is to have daily contact with individuals. In Michigan, local health departments are conducting twice daily monitoring. This will allow Michigan’s health officials to quickly evaluate any symptoms which may be indicative of Ebola or a variety of other illnesses such as the common cold or the flu.

MDCH is working with health care facilities across the state to conduct drills, provide training, and assess their readiness to respond to patients with potential Ebola virus infection, especially as guidance from the CDC is updated.

Residents looking for information in their community should contact their local health department. To locate the Local Health Department serving your county, check the interactive map at http://1.usa.gov/1ze0zdy.

Visit the CDC website at www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola for information about updated CDC guidelines and protocols.

More information about Ebola, including weekly Monday updates at 3 p.m. regarding the number of residents being monitored, will be available at www.michigan.gov/ebola.

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