28 Mar 2015

#Research Articles #Abstracts on #Influenza & Other Respiratory #Viruses–March 28 2015 Issue

[Source: AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).]

#Research Articles #Abstracts on #Influenza & Other Respiratory #Viruses–March 28 2015 Issue [   R   ]


This Week’s Abstracts:


Antiviral Res

  1. CAI W, Li Y, Chen S, Wang M, et al
    • 14-Deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide exerts anti-influenza A virus activity and inhibits replication of H5N1 virus by restraining nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes.
      • Antiviral Res. 2015 Mar 20. pii: S0166-3542(15)00060.


Arch Virol

  1. PARK WJ, Park BJ, Song YJ, Lee DH, et al
    • Analysis of cytokine production in a newly developed canine tracheal epithelial cell line infected with H3N2 canine influenza virus.



  1. COHEN D
    • BMA tells GPs to follow own judgment in prescribing antiflu drugs.
    • Flu is now widespread in 43 US states, CDC reports.


J Immunol

  1. BAHAROM F, Thomas S, Bieder A, Hellmer M, et al
    • Protection of Human Myeloid Dendritic Cell Subsets against Influenza A Virus Infection Is Differentially Regulated upon TLR Stimulation.


J Infect Dis

  1. TERAJIMA M, Co MD, Cruz J, Ennis FA, et al
    • High Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Antibody Titers to H5N1 and H7N9 Avian Influenza A Viruses in Healthy US Adults and Older Children.


J Virol

  1. JOSEPH U, Linster M, Suzuki Y, Krauss S, et al
    • Correction for Joseph et al., Adaptation of Pandemic H2N2 Influenza A Viruses in Humans.
  2. ZANIN M, Marathe B, Wong SS, Yoon SW, et al
    • Pandemic swine H1N1 influenza viruses with almost undetectable neuraminidase activity do not transmit via aerosols in ferrets and are inhibited by human mucus, but not swine mucus.
  3. MUHLBAUER D, Dzieciolowski J, Hardt M, Hocke A, et al
    • Influenza Virus-Induced Caspase-Dependent Enlargement of Nuclear Pores Promotes Nuclear Export of Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes.
  4. QIN T, Yin Y, Yu Q, Huang L, et al
    • CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Facilitate Delivery of Whole Inactivated H9N2 Influenza Virus via Transepithelial Dendrites of Dendritic Cells in Nasal Mucosa.
  5. LIU G, Park HS, Pyo HM, Liu Q, et al
    • Influenza A Virus Panhandle Structure is Directly Involved in RIG-I Activation and IFN Induction.


PLoS One

  1. ENGLER RJ, Nelson MR, Collins LC Jr, Spooner C, et al
    • A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Myocarditis/Pericarditis and New Onset Cardiac Symptoms following Smallpox and Influenza Vaccination.
  2. STEPANOVA LA, Kotlyarov RY, Kovaleva AA, Potapchuk MV, et al
    • Protection against Multiple Influenza A Virus Strains Induced by Candidate Recombinant Vaccine Based on Heterologous M2e Peptides Linked to Flagellin.
  3. CHIA MY, Hu AY, Tseng YF, Weng TC, et al
    • Evaluation of MDCK Cell-Derived Influenza H7N9 Vaccine Candidates in Ferrets.
  4. ROWSE M, Qiu S, Tsao J, Xian T, et al
    • Characterization of potent fusion inhibitors of influenza virus.
  5. VELASCO-HERNANDEZ JX, Nunez-Lopez M, Comas-Garcia A, Cherpitel DE, et al
    • Superinfection between Influenza and RSV Alternating Patterns in San Luis Potosi State, Mexico.
  6. LI Z, Gabbard JD, Johnson S, Dlugolenski D, et al
    • Efficacy of a Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5)-Based H7N9 Vaccine in Mice and Guinea Pigs: Antibody Titer towards HA Was Not a Good Indicator for Protection.
  7. DAYEM AA, Choi HY, Kim YB, Cho SG, et al
    • Antiviral Effect of Methylated Flavonol Isorhamnetin against Influenza.
  8. LINDEGREN ML, Griffin MR, Williams JV, Edwards KM, et al
    • Antiviral Treatment among Older Adults Hospitalized with Influenza, 2006-2012.
  9. BOLTON KJ, McCaw JM, Brown L, Jackson D, et al
    • Prior Population Immunity Reduces the Expected Impact of CTL-Inducing Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza Control.
  10. SASAKI K, Hayashi K, Lee JB, Kurosaki F, et al
    • Characterization of a Novel Mutation in NS1 Protein of Influenza A Virus Induced by a Chemical Substance for the Attenuation of Pathogenicity.



  1. MCDADE TW, Borja JB, Kuzawa CW, Perez TL, et al
    • C-reactive protein response to influenza vaccination as a model of mild inflammatory stimulation in the Philippines.
      • Vaccine. 2015 Mar 18. pii: S0264-410X(15)00307.
    • Web-based intensive monitoring of adverse events following influenza vaccination in general practice.
  3. DE VLEESCHAUWER A, Qiu Y, Van Reeth K
    • Vaccination-challenge studies with a Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2)-based swine influenza virus vaccine: Reflections on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test.
      • Vaccine. 2015 Mar 21. pii: S0264-410X(15)00330.
  4. LAENEN J, Roelants M, Devlieger R, Vandermeulen C, et al
    • Influenza and pertussis vaccination coverage in pregnant women.
      • Vaccine. 2015 Mar 18. pii: S0264-410X(15)00308.



  1. WOODWARD A, Rash AS, Medcalf E, Bryant NA, et al
    • Using epidemics to map H3 equine influenza virus determinants of antigenicity.



Global #migration of #influenza A viruses in #swine (Nature Commun., abstract, edited)

[Source: Nature Communications, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Nature Communications | Article

Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine [      ]

Martha I. Nelson, Cécile Viboud, Amy L. Vincent, Marie R. Culhane, Susan E. Detmer, David E. Wentworth, Andrew Rambaut, Marc A. Suchard, Edward C. Holmes & Philippe Lemey

Journal name: Nature Communications - Volume: 6, Article number: 6696 - DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms7696

Received 04 October 2014 - Accepted 19 February 2015 - Published 27 March 2015



The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world’s largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China’s large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

Subject terms: Biological sciences • Ecology • Evolution • Virology



Personal #Protective #Equipment for #Filovirus #Epidemics: A Call for Better #Evidence (J Infect Dis., abstract, edited)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Personal Protective Equipment for Filovirus Epidemics: A Call for Better Evidence [      ]

Armand G. Sprecher 1, An Caluwaerts 1, Mike Draper 2, Heinz Feldmann 3, Clifford P. Frey 4, Renée H. Funk 5, Gary Kobinger 6, James W. Le Duc 7, Christina Spiropoulou 8 and Warren Jon Williams 9

Author Affiliations: 1Médecins Sans Frontières, Operational Center of Brussels, Belgium 2Microgard Ltd, Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom 3Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana 4Personal Safety Division, 3M, Saint Paul, Minnesota 5Emergency Preparedness and Response Office, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgia 6Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba 7Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 8Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 9Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Correspondence: Armand G. Sprecher, MD, MPH, Medical Department, Médecins Sans Frontières, rue Arbre Bénit 46, 1050 Brussels, Belgium (



Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an important part of worker protection during filovirus outbreaks. The need to protect against a highly virulent fluid-borne pathogen in the tropical environment imposes a heat stress on the wearer that is itself a safety risk. No evidence supports the choice of PPE employed in recent outbreaks, and standard testing procedures employed by the protective garment industry do not well simulate filovirus exposure. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate PPE for filoviruses and the heat stress that it imposes.

Key words: Ebola - heat stress disorders - hemorrhagic fever - protective clothing

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (, which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact



#Ebola Virus #Glycoprotein Promotes Enhanced Viral Egress by Preventing Ebola VP40 From Associating With the #Host Restriction Factor BST2/Tetherin (J Infect Dis., abstract, edited)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Promotes Enhanced Viral Egress by Preventing Ebola VP40 From Associating With the Host Restriction Factor BST2/Tetherin [   R   ]

Jean K. Gustin, Ying Bai, Ashlee V. Moses and Janet L. Douglas

Author Affiliations: Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton

Correspondence: Janet L. Douglas, PhD, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006 (

Presented in part: Annual meetings of the Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Amelia Island, Florida, 26–28 March 2012, and Seattle, Washington, 7–9 April 2013.




BST2/tetherin is an innate immune molecule with the unique ability to restrict the egress of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other enveloped viruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV). Coincident with this discovery was the finding that the HIV Vpu protein down-regulates BST2 from the cell surface, thereby promoting viral release. Evidence suggests that the EBOV envelope glycoprotein (GP) also counteracts BST2, although the mechanism is unclear.


We find that total levels of BST2 remain unchanged in the presence of GP, whereas surface BST2 is significantly reduced. GP is known to sterically mask surface receptors via its mucin domain. Our evaluation of mutant GP molecules indicate that masking of BST2 by GP is probably responsible for the apparent surface BST2 down-regulation; however, this masking does not explain the observed virus-like particle egress enhancement. We discovered that VP40 coimmunoprecipitates and colocalizes with BST2 in the absence but not in the presence of GP.


These results suggest that GP may overcome the BST2 restriction by blocking an interaction between VP40 and BST2. Furthermore, we have observed that GP may enhance BST2 incorporation into virus-like particles. Understanding this novel EBOV immune evasion strategy will provide valuable insights into the pathogenicity of this deadly pathogen.

Key words: Ebola virus – HIV – BST2 – tetherin - Ebola GP - Ebola VP40 - viral egress - host immune restriction

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:



Does #influenza #vaccination modify influenza disease #severity? Data on older #adults hospitalized with influenza during the 2012−13 season in the #US (J Infect Dis., abstract, edited)

[Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Does influenza vaccination modify influenza disease severity? Data on older adults hospitalized with influenza during the 2012−13 season in the United States [      ]

Carmen S. Arriola 1,2, Evan J. Anderson 3,4, Joan Baumbach 5, Nancy Bennett 6, Susan Bohm 7, Mary Hill 8, Mary Lou Lindegren 9, Krista Lung 10, James Meek 11, Elizabeth Mermel 12, Lisa Miller 13, Maya L. Monroe 14, Craig Morin 15, Oluwakemi Oni 16, Arthur Reingold 17, William Schaffner 9, Ann Thomas 18, Shelley M. Zansky 19, Lyn Finelli 2 and Sandra S. Chaves 2

Author Affiliations: 1Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA  2Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 3Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 4Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 5New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA 6Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA 7Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, Michigan, USA 8Salt Lake County Health Department, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 9Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA 10Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA 11Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA 12Rhode Island Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, USA 13Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, Colorado, USA 14Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 15Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA 16Iowa Department of Public Health, Des Moines, Iowa, USA 17California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland, California, USA 18Oregon Public Health Division, Portland, Oregon, USA 19Emerging Infections Program, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA

Corresponding Author: Carmen Sofia Arriola, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd MS A-32, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States of America; telephone: 404-718-4589; fax: 404-639-3866; email:

Alternate Corresponding Author: Sandra Chaves, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd MS A-20, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States of America; telephone: 404-639-2797; fax: 404-639-3866; email:




Some studies suggest that influenza vaccination might be protective against severe influenza outcomes in vaccinated persons who become infected. We used data from a large surveillance network to further investigate the effect of influenza vaccination on influenza disease severity in adults aged ≥50 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza.


We analyzed influenza vaccination and influenza severity using Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) data for the 2012−13 influenza season. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, death, diagnosis of pneumonia, and hospital and ICU lengths of stay served as measures of disease severity. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, parametric survival models and propensity score matching (PSM).


Overall, no differences in severity were observed in the multivariable logistic regression model. Using PSM, adults aged 50−64 years (but not other age groups) who were vaccinated against influenza had a shorter ICU length of stay compared to those unvaccinated (HR for discharge=1.84, 95% CI: 1.12−3.01).


Our findings show a modest effect of influenza vaccination on disease severity. Analysis of data from seasons with different predominant strains and higher estimates of vaccine effectiveness are needed.

Received January 12, 2015. Revision received March 18, 2015. Accepted March 19, 2015.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.



Reducing #mortality from emerging #diseases (@WHO, Wkly Epidemiol Rec., edited)

[Source: World Health Organization, Weekly Epidemiological Record, full PDF document: (LINK). Edited.]

Weekly epidemiological record / Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire / 27 MARCH 2015, 90th YEAR / 27 MARS 2015, 90e ANNÉE / No. 13, 2015, 90, 121–132 /


Reducing mortality from emerging diseases [      ]

Throughout the history of epidemic diseases, from plague to cholera, the first public health measures consisted first and foremost of reducing the spread of the disease in populations.

Patient treatment, especially for emerging diseases when there is no specific treatment, is often less visible in the response strategy.


Epidemic disease control

Epidemic and pandemic diseases have a variable impact on the health of populations.

Two principal aspects are usually taken into account: first, the transmission of the disease and its capacity to spread, and second, the severity of the disease and its capacity to kill those infected.

In very broad terms, 2 principal parameters are used to define epidemics and guide response operations: the base reproduction number (R0) for transmission, which indicates the number of secondary infections due to an initial case and the case fatality rate, a measurement of mortality.

These parameters are both influenced by factors external to the disease and so may vary depending on the context. The R0 of a disease will therefore depend on transmission routes (airborne, contact, etc.) and factors influencing transmission (mobility, social practices, etc.).

The case fatality rate depends, among other things, on age and other risk factors. For example, measles is a very infectious disease with an R0 between 12 and 18, which means that an infected person can infect 18 other people in turn. The case fatality rate for measles, outside emergencies, varies between 0.05% and 6%.(1) Conversely, Ebola, with an R0 between 1.5 and 2.5, is not so easily transmitted, but has a particularly high case fatality rate of up to 90%.(2)

Epidemic management therefore has a population aspect, i.e. adopting measures to avoid transmission, and also a clinical aspect, i.e. treating infected people to the extent possible.


Reducing mortality: a sometimes forgotten aspect of epidemic response

Traditionally, public health measures have focused mainly on the transmission of epidemics. Quarantine, patient isolation, and border controls are the methods commonly used. Their efficacy was proven during the cholera epidemics of the early 20th century, for example.

These measures are the only ones which slow the progression of an epidemic in the absence of vaccines or specific treatments.

Historically, the response to emerging diseases such as Ebola, for which no specific treatment is available, has rarely considered patient treatment to be an important component of disease control.

It some cases, health facilities used to be closed for fear of aggravating nosocomial transmission of the disease. Contagious patients were generally kept together in isolation centres in order to separate them from their families and reduce transmission, without necessarily offering sophisticated treatments.


H1N1 2009 and Ebola 2014: towards a paradigm shift for emerging diseases

The 2009 influenza pandemic marked a sea change. Six months elapsed between the discovery of the virus and the possibility of delivering a vaccine; it was therefore important to treat patients, particularly those at risk of complications such as asthmatics, pregnant women, young children, and the elderly. The epidemic highlighted that there was no effective surveillance of serious cases admitted to hospital, even in countries habituated to seasonal influenza, which shows how little attention is given to reducing mortality compared to reducing transmission.

Much effort was devoted to saving lives through the use of antivirals or sophisticated methods of intensive care such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

The 2009 H1N1 virus may indeed have been less virulent than predicted, but patient treatment certainly contributed to reducing mortality, particularly in severe cases.(3)

Even in a disease such as Ebola, for which no specific treatment or vaccine exists, early case management with proper, high-quality treatment reduces mortality. During the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, it was possible to reduce mortality from 90% to 30% in some treatment centres.(4)

WHO had already highlighted the need to improve patient treatment. From 2012, in partnership with the Ugandan government, it developed a programme to improve the treatment of patients with suspected viral haemorrhagic fever. This experience, conducted in partnership with the Alliance for Integrated Management of Adolescents and Adult Illness/Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMAI-IMCI) and supported by the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency, led to the development of a treatment guide which proved indispensable during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, the establishment of a pool of trainers who shared their knowledge with health workers in affected countries and the foreign medical teams that flocked to the region (nearly 40 organizations from 16 countries),(5) and the introduction of a new approach to managing diseases for which no treatment or vaccine exists.

Treating patients and offering hope of a cure also contributes to the acceptance of public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. If patients and families can be convinced that as much as possible is being done to treat patients, their trust in health institutions will grow commensurately.

Reducing mortality of epidemic diseases improves epidemic response in general and must to the extent possible go hand in hand with transmission control measures.


  1. Cairns et al. Challenges in measuring measles case fatality ratios in settings without vital registration (; accessed March 2015).
  2. See the WHO fact sheet on Ebola virus disease at
  3. Miller PER, et al. Supply of Neuraminidase Inhibitors Related to Reduced Influenza A (H1N1) Mortality during the 2009–2010 H1N1 Pandemic: An Ecological Study (; accessed March 2015).
  4. Hastings Centre, Kenema, Sierra Leone ( ) and Donka Centre, Conakry, Guinea (
  5. On the foreign medical teams, see



#Romania: Avian #Influenza [#H5N1] killed dozens of #pelicans in the #Danube Delta (Evenimentul, March 28 2015, edited)

[Source: Evenimentul, full page: (LINK). Automatic translation from Romanian, edited.]

#Romania: Avian #Influenza [#H5N1] killed dozens of #pelicans in the #Danube Delta [  /!\  ]

State of alert in Danube Delta. A colony of pelicans on Lake Sinoe was decimated by bird flu. 64 birds protected by law were found dead. The disease reached the delta after pelicans were a halt in Bulgaria.




#Avian #influenza [#H5N1] in #Romania: Scores of Dead Pelicans found on The Danube Delta (, March 28 2015, edited)

[Source:, full page: (LINK). Automatic translation from Romanian, edited.]

#Avian #influenza in #Romania: Scores of Dead Pelicans found on The Danube Delta [  /!\  ]

March 27, 2:40 p.m. |

Central Veterinary Laboratory for Food Safety in the DSVSA Tulcea confirmed bird flu virus infestation in six Ceaplace pelicans found dead on the island, located in Lake Sinoe. According to procedures, the samples were submitted for confirmation and serotyping National Institute for Animal Health Diagnostic, which is the National Reference Laboratory for avian influenza.

Laboratory tests were carried out in the context im Directorate Veterinary and Food Safety Tulcea was announced by the National Institute for Research and Development "Delta", on March 25 about the presence of dead pelicans on the island Ceaplace . The colony of pelicans were observed sick birds, but found that there is a total of 64 bodies Dalmatian Pelican. Although the area there were other bird species have not been identified other bird corpses.




#BurkinaFaso facing #birdflu #threat (SpyGhana, March 28 2015)

[Source: SpyGhana, full page: (LINK).]

#BurkinaFaso facing #birdflu #threat [  /!\  ]

Mar 27, 2015

Burkina Faso’s animal resources ministry has expressed concern over a possible outbreak of bird flu in the country following massive deaths of poultry in the capital Ouagadougou as well as in other provinces in the last two months.  In a statement issued on Thursday, the ministry said thousands of deaths of birds had raised concern over the possibility of bird flu presence in the country.


Source: Xinhua



27 Mar 2015

#Egypt, #FAO / #OIE / #WHO mission warned about #H5N1 #birdflu virus upsurge (El Balad, March 27 2015, edited)

[Source: El balad, full page: (LINK). Automatic translation from Arabic, edited.]

#Egypt, #FAO / #OIE / #WHO mission warned about #H5N1 #birdflu virus upsurge [      ][      ]

Muhammad Ali and Islam Abdel Hady / Friday 27/03/2015 - 14:42

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization announced (FAO) that the avian influenza highly pathogenic (HPAI) is pervasive deep in Egyptian poultry flocks and represents a serious threat in the absence remedied quickly command from the officials of the Egyptian government.

The FAO expert in Rome, Malcolm Flanagan, In a report prepared and published in the journal "Animal Pharm" Global Commenting on the visit of a delegation of five international destinations for the inspection of Egypt and stand on the causes of the spread of avian influenza, the bird flu strain H5N1 is endemic in Egypt for almost a decade and there are no signs of waning, as the outbreak of the H5N1 virus in poultry from both commercial and domestic sectors, many people and infects routinely.

He added that the Food and Agriculture Organization confirms that the number of H5N1 infections increased significantly since December 2014 in Egypt, pointing out that this country is now on high alert on H5N1, and between December 2014 and February 2015, was recorded a total of 352 [poultry] outbreaks of avian influenza and 101 human cases with 31 deaths, and compare that number to 44 cases only to outbreaks in poultry with not reporting any injuries during the same time period last year in Egypt.

He said that on a global scale, Egypt has now become the most affected countries of the H5N1 virus in terms of human cases (37% of all cases worldwide). coincide recent events in the context of increased activity of avian influenza H5 in all parts of the world, in terms of the number of cases outbreak, the diversity of the virus, as well as the geographical spread.