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#WHO / #PAHO #statement on #Zika virus and the 2016 #Rio #Olympic and #Paralympic #Games (May 12 2016)

  Title : #WHO / #PAHO #statement on #Zika virus and the 2016 #Rio #Olympic and #Paralympic #Games. Subject : Mass Gathering Events and ve...

25 May 2016

#Brazil Ministry of #Health confirmed 1,434 #Zika-related #Microcephaly cases as of May 24 2016 (Edited)

 

Title: Brazil Ministry of Health confirmed 1,434 Zika-related Microcephaly cases as of May 24 2016.

Subject: Zika Virus Disease Epidemic in Brazil, Zika Congenital Syndrome and neurodevelopmental complications, weekly update.

Source: Ministry of Health of Brazil, full page: (LINK). Article in Portuguese.

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Data de Cadastro: 24/05/2016 as 18:05:40 alterado em 24/05/2016 as 18:05:57

BOLETIM

Microcefalia: Ministério da Saúde confirma 1.434 casos no país

O Ministério da Saúde divulgou nesta terça-feira (24), o Informe Epidemiológico de Microcefalia referente à semana 20 deste ano, até o dia 21 de maio.

O novo boletim confirma 1.434 casos de microcefalia e outras alterações do sistema nervoso, sugestivos de infecção congênita em todo o país.

O Informe reúne informações encaminhadas semanalmente pelas secretarias estaduais de saúde.

No total, foram notificados 7.623 casos suspeitos desde o início das investigações, em outubro de 2015, sendo que 3.257 permanecem em investigação.

Outros 2.932 foram descartados por apresentarem exames normais, ou por apresentarem microcefalia e ou malformações confirmadas por causa não infecciosas ou não se enquadrarem na definição de caso.

Os 1.434 casos confirmados em todo o Brasil ocorreram em 517 municípios, localizados em 25 unidades da federação.

Desses casos, 208 tiveram confirmação por critério laboratorial específico para o vírus Zika.

O Ministério da Saúde, no entanto, ressalta que esse dado não representa, adequadamente, a totalidade do número de casos relacionados ao vírus. A pasta considera que houve infecção pelo Zika na maior parte das mães que tiveram bebês com diagnóstico final de microcefalia.

Em relação aos óbitos, no mesmo período, foram registrados 285 óbitos suspeitos de microcefalia e/ou alteração do sistema nervoso central após o parto ou durante a gestação (abortamento ou natimorto) no país.

Destes, 60 foram confirmados para microcefalia e/ou alteração do sistema nervoso central.

Outros 187 continuam em investigação e 38 foram descartados.

O Ministério da Saúde ressalta que está investigando todos os casos de microcefalia e outras alterações do sistema nervoso central, informados pelos estados, e a possível relação com o vírus Zika e outras infecções congênitas. A microcefalia pode ter como causa, diversos agentes infecciosos além do Zika, como Sífilis, Toxoplasmose, Outros Agentes Infecciosos, Rubéola, Citomegalovírus e Herpes Viral.

A pasta orienta as gestantes adotarem medidas que possam reduzir a presença do mosquito Aedes aegypti, com a eliminação de criadouros, e proteger-se da exposição de mosquitos, como manter portas e janelas fechadas ou teladas, usar calça e camisa de manga comprida e utilizar repelentes permitidos para gestantes.

 

Distribuição dos casos notificados de microcefalia por UF, até 21 de maio de 2016

[Regiões e Unidades Federadas - Casos de Microcefalia e/ou malformações, sugestivos de infecção congênita: - Em investigação – Confirmados [2,3] – Descartados [4] -  Total acumulado [1] de casos notificados de 2015 a 2016]

  • Brasil - 3.257 - 1.434 - 2.932 - 7.623
    • Alagoas – 69 – 70 – 155 – 294
    • Bahia – 646 – 247 – 210 - 1.103
    • Ceará – 210 – 102 – 174 – 486
    • Maranhão – 77 – 126 – 54 – 257
    • Paraíba – 313 – 129 – 439 – 881
    • Pernambuco – 541 – 359 - 1.068 - 1.968
    • Piauí – 15 – 82 – 70 – 167
    • Rio Grande do Norte – 264 – 108 – 53 – 425
    • Sergipe – 142 – 50 – 39 – 231
      • Região Nordeste - 2.277 - 1.273 - 2.262 - 5.812
    • Espírito Santo – 86 – 11 – 45 – 142
    • Minas Gerais – 54 – 3 – 55 – 112
    • Rio de Janeiro – 271 – 61 – 114 – 446
    • São Paulo – 186 – 8 – 112 – 306
      • Região Sudeste – 597 – 83 326 - 1.006
    • Acre – 21 – 0 – 17 – 38
    • Amapá – 2 – 7 – 1 – 10
    • Amazonas – 11 – 4 – 5 – 20
    • Pará – 29 – 1 – 0 – 30
    • Rondônia – 4 – 4 – 7 – 15
    • Roraima – 9 – 8 – 7 – 24
    • Tocantins – 96 – 8 – 33 – 137
      • Região Norte – 172 – 32 70 – 274
    • Distrito Federal – 2 – 5 – 34 – 41
    • Goiás – 68 – 14 – 52 – 134
    • Mato Grosso – 109 – 15 – 93 – 217
    • Mato Grosso do Sul – 2 – 2 – 14 – 18
      • Região Centro-Oeste – 181 – 36 193 – 410
    • Paraná – 6 – 4 – 27 – 37
    • Santa Catarina – 1 – 1 – 4 – 6
    • Rio Grande do Sul – 23 – 5 – 50 – 78
      • Região Sul – 30 – 10 81 – 121

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Fonte: Secretarias de Saúde dos Estados e Distrito Federal (dados atualizados até 21/05/2016).

1. Número cumulativo de casos notificados que preenchiam a definição de caso operacional anterior (33 cm), além das definições adotadas no Protocolo de Vigilância (a partir de 09/12/2015) que definiu o Perímetro Cefálico de 32 cm para recém-nascidos com 37 ou mais semanas de gestação e demais definições do protocolo.

2. Apresentam alterações típicas: indicativas de infecção congênita, como calcificações intracranianas, dilatação dos ventrículos cerebrais ou alterações de fossa posterior entre outros sinais clínicos observados por qualquer método de imagem ou identificação do vírus Zika em testes laboratoriais.

3. Foram confirmados 208 casos por critério laboratorial específico para vírus Zika (técnica de PCR e sorologia).

4. Descartados por apresentar exames normais, por apresentar microcefalia e/ou malformações congênitas confirmada por causas não infecciosas ou por não se enquadrar nas definições de casos.

Conforme informado pelo Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica “Prof. Alexandre Vranjac”, da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de São Paulo 186 casos se encontram em investigação para infecção congênita. Desses, 40 são possivelmente associados com a infecção pelo vírus Zika, porém ainda não foram finalizadas as investigações.

01 caso confirmado de microcefalia por Vírus Zika em recém-nascido com local provável de infecção em outra UF.

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Agência Saúde / Atendimento à imprensa: (61) 3315-3580

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Keywords: Brazil; Updates; Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Microcephaly.

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#Technical #Statement on the #Role of #Disinsection in the Context of #Zika #Outbreaks, 2016 (@CDCgov, May 25 2016)

 

Title: #Technical #Statement on the #Role of #Disinsection in the Context of #Zika #Outbreaks, 2016.

Subject: ZIKV Disease, entomologic control.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

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Disinsection

Language: [ English | Español | Português ]

Technical Statement on the Role of Disinsection in the Context of Zika Outbreaks, 2016

 

Key Points

  • CDC does not recommend routine use of insecticides (disinsection) inside commercial passenger airplanes to prevent the spread of Zika virus.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) convened an Advisory Group on aircraft disinsection in Geneva during April 2016 to discuss the role of disinsection in the spread of Zika virus. 
    • In the context of Zika virus, WHO stated:
      • “Effectiveness of disinsection was considered low for preventing pathogen importation, as there is a low risk of importation by mosquito vectors compared to infected travelers.”
    • However, WHO continues to recognize a possible role for disinsection in certain circumstances and advises countries to conduct a risk assessment before instating requirements.  
    • It is therefore possible that individual countries may require disinsection of aircraft originating from countries with Zika outbreaks.1
  • An infected person is the most common source for imported mosquito-borne viruses with a human-mosquito-human transmission cycle.2
    • Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, spread internationally primarily through infected people.
    • This can occur when an infected person goes to a different country and is bitten by uninfected mosquitoes that then become infected.
    • The newly infected mosquito population can then spread the disease.
  • It is thought that the probability of any mosquito being on a plane is low (and perhaps even lower for an infected mosquito).3
  • Given the use of air conditioning and the relatively brief period for potential exposure, the risk of travelers becoming infected on board an airplane through the bite of an infected mosquito is considered to be lower than their risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito while they were in affected areas.
  • Public health interventions for travelers should focus on preventing mosquito bites while in areas with Zika virus outbreaks and on return from those areas (for 3 weeks following return).
  • Routine, established efforts to control or eliminate mosquitoes in and around airports and seaports should be followed.

 

Limitations with Respect to the Use of Disinsection in Airplanes to Control the Spread of Zika Virus

  • There is no evidence to show that using insecticide to kill mosquitoes inside aircraft cabins is effective in preventing introduction and spread of mosquito-borne diseases.
  • Given lack of efficacy, drawbacks to consider include possible adverse health effects (including allergic reactions) in crew members or passengers , damage to aircraft materials, and objections by passengers and crewmembers.4, 5 The issue of emerging resistance to insecticides among mosquito species is another factor to weigh when considering disinsection.6
  • There are currently no products approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for disinsection inside an occupied aircraft cabin.7

Although CDC has the authority to require disinsection under parts 70 and 71 of title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations, disinsection is not currently required for airplanes or ships arriving at US ports of entry.8

 

Humans are the Most Common Way for Zika Virus to Enter a Country

The most common way that Zika virus enters a country is by introduction of the virus to the local mosquito population by an infected traveler.

Mosquito species that can transmit the Zika virus (Aedes species) are found in many parts of the United States, so infected people arriving in the United States could be bitten in their homes or residential areas by mosquitoes, which could result in local spread.

For these reasons, areas where these mosquitoes are located or where Zika virus is spreading should focus on local mosquito control and other prevention efforts, such as encouraging returning travelers to take measures to prevent mosquito bites.

 

Summary

CDC does not recommend disinsection inside commercial passenger aircraft to be an effective approach to control the movement of Zika virus over long distances, such as from one country to another.

CDC recommends that other local public health interventions should be the primary focus to prevent local transmission of Zika virus.

 

References

  1. WHO Ad-hoc Advisory Group on aircraft disinsection for controlling the international spread of vector-borne diseases, Geneva, Switzerland, 21 to 22 April 2016.
  2. SM Ostroff. The Role of the Traveler in Translocation of Disease. CDC Health Information for International Travel, 2016 Yellow Book.
  3. L Mier-y-Teran-Romero, AJ Tatem, and MA Johansson. Introduction of mosquito-borne diseases into non-endemic locations: infected human travelers versus mosquitoes. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases[PDF - 300 pages]. August, 2015. Atlanta, Georgia, p. 261.
  4. CDC NIOSH. Aircrew Safety & Health. Pesticides – What you need to know.
  5. Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development. Aircraft disinsection: A guide for military & civilian air carriers. 1996.
  6. N Liu. Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: Impact, mechanisms, and research directions. Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 60: 537-559 (Volume publication date January 2015) DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ento-010814-020828
  7. EPA PRN 96-3: Peticide products used to disinsect aircraft. 1996.
  8. Code of Federal Regulations; Title 42 Public Health; parts 70 and 71.

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Zika Virus.

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#China, #Jiangxi #H7N9 #birdflu virus infected #patient discharged from #hospital (Health Express, May 25 2016, edited)

 

Title: #China, #Jiangxi #H7N9 #birdflu virus infected #patient discharged from #hospital.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human infection, Jiangxi Province of China.

Source: Health Express, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, automatic translation, edited.

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Jiangxi H7N9 bird flu virus infected patient discharged from hospital

2016/5/25 10:28:04 Source: Working Together Health Network

According to the latest news, Jiangxi, a patient infected with H7N9 avian influenza was discharged. Currently it belongs to the province first. Xiong patients 80 years of age this year, he is the H7N9 bird flu first case of human infection with the rehabilitation of patients in Jiangxi Province. Discharged after treatment through the last ten days of isolation.

It is understood that the patient Xiong, male, 80 years old, Nanchang Chang Dong farmers raising chickens at home. April 28, case a sample of the patient by the Jiangxi Provincial Center for Disease Control Measures human infection of H7N9 avian influenza virus nucleic acid positive, the Jiangxi Provincial Health Department LEG diagnose human infection of H7N9 avian influenza confirmed cases. Subsequently, the patient was sent to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University hospital for isolation and treatment.

After a positive medical professionals, scientific and effective treatment, the patient's condition improved day by day, the temperature is normal, stable vital signs, clinical symptoms, reviewed several times H7N9 avian influenza virus nucleic acid were negative. May 7, the expert group consultation, patient compliance with the discharge standards established by the National Health and Family Planning Commission granted discharge. May 8 morning, the patient Xiong formally discharged. So far, he has experienced about 200 hours isolation.

(…)

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Keywords: China; Jiangxi; Human; H7N9; Avian Influenza.

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#H7N9 #Birdlfu #patient markedly improved according #China #Hebei Province’s #Health officials (H News, May 25 2016, edited)

 

Title: H7N9 Birdlfu patient markedly improved according China Hebei Province’s Health officials.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human infection, Hebei Province of China.

Source: Hebei News, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, automatic translation, edited.

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Hebei province has not reported any death of patients with H7N9 virus

2016-05-25 06:53:19 Source: Hebei News Editor: Wang Yanrong

Hebei News Network / the most recent period, network and circle of friends as many rumors news that the province Hengshui, Cangzhou, Langfang and other places because it was infected with H7N9 virus, death occurs. May 24 afternoon, the Ministry of Health and Family Planning Commission thus held a news conference to announce the province of human infection with H7N9 bird flu virus situation. This year, the province did not receive human infection with H7N9 virus deaths were reported.

The Confirmed case of human infection cases of H7N9 virus, the patient after treatment, his condition improved markedly

Ministry of Health and Family Planning Commission May 20 briefing, Hengshui City confirmed case of human infection of H7N9 virus. According to reports, the patient a Xinji resident, farmer, appeared in the May 10 headache fever, local treatment five days did not improve, May 16 to a hospital in Hengshui City hospital. May 18, in the sample sentinel hospital routine monitoring of inspection, we found that patients with positive screening samples of H7N9, the provincial CDC detection and positive review of China, based on epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests As a result, the patient was diagnosed with human infection of H7N9 virus confirmed cases.

Involved in the treatment of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, ICU director Huzhen Jie said that although patients with severe illness, but after many days of treatment, the condition improved markedly. As of press time reporter, the patient is still in active treatment.

"Hengshui and Xinji City, the patient's 39 close contacts of the implementation of medical observation, no clinical signs of abnormality." Provincial Center for Disease Virus Diseases director Qishun Xiang explained that currently there are 27 close contacts lifted medical observation, and the remaining 12 to continue medical observation.

(…)

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Keywords: China; Hebei; Human; H7N9; Avian Influenza.

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#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 25 2016 #Update, Issue No. 17

 

Title: Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 25 2016 #Update, Issue No. 17.

Subject: ZIKV Disease, References Library Update.

Source: AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code: [   R   ]

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This Week’s References:

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  1. DEL CARPIO-ORANTES L.
  2. TURRINI F, Ghezzi S, Pagani I, Poli G, et al.
  3. LIUZZI G, Puro V, Lanini S, Vairo F, et al.
  4. WHALLEY K.
  5. MASSAD E, Tan SH, Khan K, Wilder-Smith A, et al.
  6. CARVALHO MS.
  7. CAMARGO TM.
  8. DINIZ D.
  9. DONG XJ, Sun JM, Lou LQ, Zhu ZH, et al.
  10. LIAO Y, Zeng ZL, Hu GL, Yang JP, et al.
  11. ORSBORNE J, DeRaedt Banks S, Hendy A, Gezan SA, et al.
    • Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory.
  12. KUCHARSKI AJ, Funk S, Eggo RM, Mallet HP, et al.
    • Transmission Dynamics of Zika Virus in Island Populations: A Modelling Analysis of the 2013-14 French Polynesia Outbreak.
  13. BECKHAM JD, Pastula DM, Massey A, Tyler KL, et al.
  14. MINER JJ, Cao B, Govero J, Smith AM, et al.
    • Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy in Mice Causes Placental Damage and Fetal Demise.
  15. RIBEIRO LS, Marques RE, Jesus AM, Almeida RP, et al.
  16. LI C, Xu D, Ye Q, Hong S, et al.
  17. LIUZZI G, Nicastri E, Puro V, Zumla A, et al.
  18. NAU JY.
  19. CULJAT M, Darling SE, Nerurkar VR, Ching N, et al.
  20. WAGGONER JJ, Gresh L, Mohamed-Hadley A, Ballesteros G, et al.
  21. BLONZ ER.
  22. ZHANG FC, Li XF, Deng YQ, Tong YG, et al.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Zika References Library.

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24 May 2016

#CapeVerde #Zika #Epidemic receding according local #health #officials (Mali Actu, May 24 2016)

 

Title: Cape Verde Zika Epidemic receding according local health officials.

Subject: Zika Virus Epidemic in Cape Verde, epidemiological situation.

Source: Mali Actu, full page: (LINK). Article in French.

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Zika : l’épidémie en recul au Cap-Vert, seul pays africain touché

24 mai 2016

L’épidémie de Zika, virus responsable de microcéphalies en Amérique latine et qui a atteint le Cap-Vert il y a environ six mois, est sous contrôle et toutes les mesures sont prises pour éviter sa propagation à d’autres pays africains, a affirmé le directeur national de la Santé de l’archipel.

Le directeur national de la Santé du Cap-Vert, Tomas Valdez, a fait état lundi soir à l’AFP à Praia, la capitale, d’une nette décrue depuis les premiers cas suspects en octobre 2015, comme d’ailleurs en Amérique latine et aux Caraïbes.

(…)

« En janvier, les cas suspects ont décliné, en février et en mars encore davantage, et pour la semaine du 15 au 22 mai, nous avons comptabilisé seulement quatre cas, avec des jours à zéro cas », a précisé M. Valdez.

(…)

Cumulant près de 7.000 cas sur les quelque 7.500 enregistrés, les îles de Santiago, où se trouve la capitale, de Maio et Fogo ont été les plus touchées, alors que celles du Nord, plus touristiques, n’ont pas été affectées, a-t-il souligné.

L’archipel a enregistré trois cas de bébés nés avec une microcéphalie, deux à Praia et un sur l’île de Maio, mais aucun du syndrome de Guillain-Barré, une maladie neurologique rare, a rappelé M. Valdez.

(…)

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Keywords: Cape Verde; Zika Virus.

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#USA, #Florida: DoH Daily #Zika #Update: Two New Cases in St. Johns and Seminole Counties (May 24 2016)

 

Title: #USA, #Florida: DoH Daily #Zika #Update: Two New Cases in St. Johns and Seminole Counties.

Subject:  Zika Virus Disease, US State of Florida daily epi-report.

Source: US State of Florida Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

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Department Of Health Daily Zika Update: Two New Cases in St. Johns and Seminole Counties

By Florida Department of Health, Office of Communications / May 24, 2016 / Press Release / Contact: Communications Office, NewsMedia@flhealth.gov - (850) 245-4111

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Tallahassee, Fla.

In an effort to keep Florida residents and visitors safe and aware about the status of the Zika virus, the Florida Department of Health will issue a Zika virus update each week day at 2 p.m. Updates will include a CDC-confirmed Zika case count by county and information to better keep Floridians prepared.

There are two new cases today with one in St. Johns and one in Seminole counties.

Of the cases confirmed in Florida, four cases are still exhibiting symptoms. According to CDC, symptoms associated with the Zika virus last between seven to 10 days.

CDC recommends that women who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant postpone travel to Zika affected areas.

According to CDC guidance, providers should consider testing all pregnant women with a history of travel to a Zika affected area for the virus. CDC recommends that a pregnant woman with a history of Zika virus and her provider should consider additional ultrasounds.

Florida has been monitoring pregnant women with evidence of Zika regardless of symptoms since January.

The total number of pregnant women who have been monitored is 36, with 9 having met the previous CDC case definition.

 

[County - Number of Cases (all travel related)]

  1. Alachua – 4
  2. Brevard – 3
  3. Broward – 17
  4. Clay – 2
  5. Collier – 1
  6. Hillsborough – 3
  7. Lee – 4
  8. Martin – 1
  9. Miami-Dade – 46
  10. Orange – 9
  11. Osceola – 5
  12. Palm Beach – 7
  13. Pasco – 1
  14. Pinellas – 4
  15. Polk – 3
  16. Santa Rosa – 1
  17. Seminole – 3
  18. St. Johns – 2
  19. Volusia – 2
  • Total cases not involving pregnant women – 118
    • Cases involving pregnant women regardless of symptoms* – 36

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*Counties of pregnant women will not be shared.

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(…)

All cases are travel-associated. There have been no locally-acquired cases of Zika in Florida. For more information on the Zika virus, click here.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Zika Virus; Pregnancy; Florida.

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#USA, #Texas: Confirmed #Zika Virus Cases – May 24, 2016 (DoH, edited)

 

Title: #USA, #Texas: Confirmed #Zika Virus Cases – May 24, 2016.

Subject: Zika Virus Disease, US State of Texas daily epi-report.

Source: US State of Texas Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code: [      ]

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Confirmed Zika Virus Cases – May 24, 2016.

Texas has had 36 confirmed cases of Zika virus disease.

Of those, 35 were in travelers who were infected abroad and diagnosed after they returned home; one of those travelers was a pregnant woman. One case involved a Dallas County resident who had sexual contact with someone who acquired the Zika infection while traveling abroad.

 

Case counts by county:

  1. Bexar – 3
  2. Collin – 1
  3. Dallas – 6
  4. Denton – 2
  5. Fort Bend – 2
  6. Grayson – 1
  7. Harris – 13
  8. Tarrant – 3
  9. Travis – 2
  10. Val Verde – 1
  11. Williamson – 1
  12. Wise – 1

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Note: Zika case data for Texas will be updated weekdays by 11 a.m.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Zika Virus; Texas.

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#Mosquito #Hunters Set #Traps Across #Houston, Search for Signs of #Zika (NPR, May 24 2016)

 

Title: #Mosquito #Hunters Set #Traps Across #Houston, Search for Signs of #Zika.

Subject: Zika Virus Disease, entomologic surveillance.

Source: NPR, full page: (LINK).

Code: [      ]

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Mosquito Hunters Set Traps Across Houston, Search for Signs of Zika

Mosquito control is serious business in Harris County, Texas.  The county, which includes Houston, stretches across 1,777 square miles and is the third most populous county in the U.S. The area's warm, muggy climate and snaking system of bayous provide an ideal habitat for mosquitoes — and the diseases they carry.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Texas; Zika Virus; Mosquitoes.

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#England, #Health and #travel #advice for #Rio2016 (@PHE_uk, May 24 2016)

 

Title: #England, #Health and #travel #advice for #Rio2016.

Subject: Olympic Games in Rio, travel advice in relation to Arboviral infections risk.

Source: Public Health England, full page: (LINK).

Code: [      ]

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News story

Health and travel advice for Rio 2016

From:  Public Health England  / First published: 24 May 2016

PHE and NaTHNaC outline health and travel advice for travellers going to the Olympics.

Public Health England (PHE) and the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) have published their advice for travellers planning to visit Brazil for the 2016 Olympic Games (5 August to 21 August) and the 2016 Paralympic Games (7 September to 18 September).

The Games are based in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and some events are being held in other parts of Brazil, including the Amazon.

The advice for the 2016 Olympics covers a variety of health and safety topics for travellers, including information about the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

PHE and NaTHNaC currently recommend that pregnant women postpone non-essential travel to areas where there is active Zika virus transmission, until after pregnancy.

Dr Dipti Patel, director at NaTHNaC said:

‘’A number of tropical diseases like malaria, dengue and yellow fever occur in some regions of Brazil and there are a range of other potential health hazards.

‘’We encourage travellers to seek travel health advice early, ideally 4 to 6 weeks before travel. This gives them time to organise any preventive measures, like vaccines or antimalarial tablets, which they may need. We also advise travellers to check NaTHNaC’s country information page for Brazil for specific recommendations.

‘’The most commonly reported travel associated infection is travellers’ diarrhoea so travellers going to Brazil should follow good food hygiene advice, be cautious when choosing where and what to eat, and pay careful attention to personal hygiene. Just a little thought and some sensible practices can help sports fans avoid any unpleasant illnesses which could ruin their Olympic experience.

Professor Nick Phin, Deputy Director of PHE’s National Infections Service said:

‘’Travelling can offer an opportunity for rest and relaxation and other benefits. However, a bout of diarrhoea can spoil your trip and some travel associated infections, like malaria, can be very serious. Taking preventive measures to protect yourself and your family against possible health problems makes good sense, and this applies even if you were born in the country you are visiting.

Read the latest NaTHNaC advice for travellers going to the 2016 Olympics.

Additional information on Zika virus is available on the PHE and NaTHNaC websites.

More information is available on the Government of Brazil’s official Olympic and Paralympic Games website.

Image courtesy of The Department for Culture, Media and Sport, used under Creative Commons.

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Keywords: England; Updates; Mass Gathering Events; Travel Warnings.

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