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#Update: Interim #Guidelines for #HealthCare #Providers Caring for #Pregnant #Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible #Zika Virus #Exposure — #USA, 2016 (@CDCgov, MMWR)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: ( LINK ).] Update: Int...

10 Feb 2016

#Evidence of #Zika #Virus #Infection in #Brain and #Placental #Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected #Newborns and Two Fetal Losses — #Brazil, 2015 (@CDCgov, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., edited)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK).]

Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses — Brazil, 2015 [      ]

Early Release / February 10, 2016 / 65(06);1–2

Format: [ PDF [277 KB] ]

Roosecelis Brasil Martines, MD, PhD1; Julu Bhatnagar, PhD1; M. Kelly Keating, DVM1; Luciana Silva-Flannery, PhD1; Atis Muehlenbachs, MD, PhD1; Joy Gary, DVM, PhD1; Cynthia Goldsmith, MS1; Gillian Hale, MD1; Jana Ritter, DVM1; Dominique Rollin, MD1; Wun-Ju Shieh, MD, PhD1; Kleber G. Luz, MD, PhD2; Ana Maria de Oliveira Ramos, MD, PhD3; Helaine Pompeia Freire Davi, MD, PhD4; Wanderson Kleber de Oliveria, MD5; Robert Lanciotti, PhD6; Amy Lambert, PhD6; Sherif Zaki, MD, PhD1

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Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in May 2015 (1). By February 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the Americas.* Infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. However, a surge in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in regions of Brazil with a high prevalence of suspected Zika virus disease cases. More than 4,700 suspected cases of microcephaly were reported from mid-2015 through January 2016, although additional investigations might eventually result in a revised lower number (2). In response, the Brazil Ministry of Health established a task force to further investigate possible connections between the virus and brain anomalies in infants (3).

Since November 2015, CDC has been developing assays for Zika virus testing in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.

In December 2015, FFPE tissues samples from two newborns (born at 36 and 38 weeks gestation) with microcephaly who died within 20 hours of birth and two miscarriages (fetal losses at 11 and 13 weeks) were submitted to CDC, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil, for histopathologic evaluation and laboratory testing for suspected Zika virus infection.

All four mothers had clinical signs of Zika virus infection, including fever and rash, during the first trimester of pregnancy, but did not have clinical signs of active infection at the time of delivery or miscarriage.

The mothers were not tested for antibodies to Zika virus.

Samples included brain and other autopsy tissues from the two newborns, a placenta from one of the newborns, and products of conception from the two miscarriages.

FFPE tissues were tested by Zika virus reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the nonstructural protein 5 and envelope genes using general methods for RT-PCR (4), and by immunohistochemistry using a mouse polyclonal anti-Zika virus antibody, using methods previously described (5).

Specific specimens from all four cases were positive by RT-PCR, and sequence analysis provided further evidence of Zika virus infection, revealing highest identities with Zika virus strains isolated from Brazil during 2015.

In the newborns, only brain tissue was positive by RT-PCR assays.

Specimens from two of the four cases were positive by immunohistochemistry: viral antigen was noted in mononuclear cells (presumed to be glial cells and neurons within the brain) of one newborn, and within the chorionic villi from one of the miscarriages.

Testing for dengue virus was negative by RT-PCR in specimens from all cases.

For both newborns, significant histopathologic changes were limited to the brain, and included parenchymal calcification, microglial nodules, gliosis, and cell degeneration and necrosis.

Other autopsy tissues and placenta had no significant findings.

Tests for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV were negative in the two mothers who experienced miscarriages.

Placental tissue from one miscarriage showed heterogeneous chorionic villi with calcification, fibrosis, perivillous fibrin deposition, and patchy intervillositis and focal villitis, while tissue from the other miscarriage had sparsely sampled normal-appearing chorionic villi.

This report describes evidence of a link between Zika virus infection and microcephaly and fetal demise through detection of viral RNA and antigens in brain tissues from infants with microcephaly and placental tissues from early miscarriages.

Histopathologic findings indicate the presence of Zika virus in fetal tissues.

These findings also suggest brain and early gestational placental tissue might be the preferred tissues for postmortem viral diagnosis.

Nonfrozen, formalin-fixed specimens or FFPE blocks are the preferred sample type for histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR can be performed on either fresh frozen or formalin-fixed specimens.

To better understand the pathogenesis of Zika virus infection and associated congenital anomalies and fetal death, it is necessary to evaluate autopsy and placental tissues from additional cases, and to determine the effect of gestational age during maternal illness on fetal outcomes.

______

Corresponding author: Roosecelis Brasil Martines, RBrasilMartines@cdc.gov, 404-639-3886.

1Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), CDC; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil; 3Department of Pathology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil; 4Service for Ascertaining Death in the State of Rio Grande do Norte (SVO/RN), Natal/RN, Brazil; 5Ministry of Health, Brazil; 6Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, NCEZID, CDC.

 

References

  1. Zanluca C, de Melo VC, Mosimann ALP, Dos Santos GI, Dos Santos CN, Luz K. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2015;110:569–72.  CrossRef - PubMed
  2. Victoria CG, Schuler-Faccini L, Matijasevich A, Ribeiro E, Pessoa A, Barros FC. Microcephaly in Brazil: how to interpret reported numbers? Lancet 2016. Epub February 5, 2016.  CrossRef
  3. Schuler-Faccini L, Ribeiro EM, Feitosa IML, et al. ; Brazilian Medical Genetics Society–Zika Embryopathy Task Force. Possible association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly—Brazil, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:59–62.  CrossRef - PubMed
  4. Bhatnagar J, Blau DM, Shieh WJ, et al. Molecular detection and typing of dengue viruses from archived tissues of fatal cases by rt-PCR and sequencing: diagnostic and epidemiologic implications. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012;86:335–40.  CrossRef - PubMed
  5. Shieh WJ, Blau DM, Denison AM, et al. 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1): pathology and pathogenesis of 100 fatal cases in the United States. Am J Pathol 2010;177:166–75.  CrossRefPubMed

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* Updated information about local transmission of Zika virus is available online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html).

Suggested citation for this article: Martines RB, Bhatnagar J, Keating MK, et al. Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses — Brazil, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release):1–2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6506e1er.

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Keywords: USA; US CDC; Updates; Zika Virus; Microcephaly; Pregnancy; Brazil.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nigeria [nine new #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, February 10 2016, edited)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Nigeria [      ]

Information received on 10/02/2016 from Dr Abdulganiyu Abubakar, Chief Veterinary Officer, Federal Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja, Nigeria

  • Summary
    • Report type Follow-up report No. 26
    • Date of start of the event 02/01/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event 08/01/2015
    • Report date 09/02/2016
    • Date submitted to OIE 10/02/2016
    • Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence 27/07/2008
    • Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
    • Related reports
      • Immediate notification (09/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 1 (16/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 2 (23/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 3 (02/02/2015) / Follow-up report No. 4 (19/02/2015) / Follow-up report No. 5 (02/03/2015) / Follow-up report No. 6 (13/05/2015) / Follow-up report No. 7 (22/06/2015) / Follow-up report No. 8 (07/07/2015) / Follow-up report No. 9 (04/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 10 (26/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 11 (14/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 12 (19/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 13 (08/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 14 (16/11/2015) / Follow-up report No. 15 (15/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 16 (04/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 17 (11/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 18 (13/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 19 (19/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 20 (21/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 21 (25/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 22 (26/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 23 (02/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 24  (04/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 25 (08/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 26 (09/02/2016)
  • New outbreaks (9)
    • Outbreak 1  - Toro, Toro, BAUCHI
      • Date of start of the outbreak 04/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (08/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 3000 – 6 – 6 – 2994 – 0
        • Affected population 24 weeks old layers
    • Outbreak 2  - Ungogo, Ungogo, KANO
      • Date of start of the outbreak 05/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 1300 – 80 – 80 – 1220 – 0
        • Affected population 17 weeks old layers
    • Outbreak 3  - Kuje, Kuje, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY
      • Date of start of the outbreak 05/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 13511 – 55 – 55 – 13456 – 0
        • Affected population 50 weeks old layers
    • Outbreak 4  - Municipal, AMAC, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY
      • Date of start of the outbreak 05/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 512 – 3 – 3 – 509 – 0
        • Affected population 7 weeks old broilers
    • Outbreak 5  - Kurmin Mashi, Kaduna South, KADUNA
      • Date of start of the outbreak 06/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 9602 – 3638 – 3638 – 5964 – 0
        • Affected population layers of unknown age
    • Outbreak 6  - Kumbotso, Kumbotso, KANO
      • Date of start of the outbreak 06/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (08/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 3000 – 447 – 447 – 2553 – 0
        • Affected population 6 weeks old pullets
    • Outbreak 7  - Jos, Jos North, PLATEAU
      • Date of start of the outbreak 06/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 2569 – 156 – 156 – 2413 – 0
        • Affected population Mixed bird species of unknown age
    • Outbreak 8  - Kurmin Mashi, Kaduna South, KADUNA
      • Date of start of the outbreak 06/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 9602 – 3638 – 3638 – 5964 – 0
        • Affected population layers of unknown age
    • Outbreak 9  - Jos, Jos North, PLATEAU
      • Date of start of the outbreak 07/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 650 – 19 – 19 – 631 – 0
        • Affected population 18 weeks old layers
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 9
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 43746 – 8042 – 8042 – 35704 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 18.38% - 18.38% - 100.00% - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Poor farm biosecurity
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Disinfection / Disinfestation
      • Quarantine
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Stamping out
      • Official destruction of animal products
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • Traceability
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 08/02/2016 – Pending
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds -  reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 08/02/2016 – Positive
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 09/02/2016 – Positive
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) -  09/02/2016 – Positive
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 09/02/2016 – Positive
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 09/02/2016 – Positive
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 09/02/2016 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

(…)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; H5N1; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Nigeria.

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#Human #infection with #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus – #China (@WHO, February 10 2016)

[Source: World Health Organization, full page: (LINK).]

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China [      ]

Disease outbreak news  / 10 February 2016

On 5 February 2016, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 28 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, including five deaths.

Onset dates ranged from 21 December 2015 to 25 January 2016.

Cases ranged in age from 14 to 91 years, with a median age of 58 years.

Of these 28 cases, 18 (64%) were male.

The majority (25 cases, 89%) reported exposure to live poultry or live poultry markets; the exposure history of three cases is unknown or no clear exposure to poultry.

No clusters were reported.

Cases were reported from six provinces and municipalities: Zhejiang (13), Jiangsu (5), Guangdong (4), Fujian (3), Shanghai (2) and Hunan (1). See attachment for individual case information.

Detailed information concerning these cases can be found in a separate document (see related links).

 

Public health response

The Chinese Government has taken the following surveillance and control measures:

  • strengthening outbreak surveillance and situation analysis;
  • reinforcing all efforts on medical treatment; and
  • conducting risk communication with the public and dissemination of information.

 

WHO risk assessment

WHO is assessing the epidemiological situation and conducting further risk assessment based on the latest information.

Based on the information received thus far, the overall public health risk from avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses has not changed.

If the pattern of human cases follows the trends seen in previous years, the number of human cases may rise over the coming months.

Further sporadic cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus are expected in affected and possibly in the neighboring areas.

Should human cases from affected areas travel internationally, their infection may be detected in another country during travels or after arrival. If this were to occur, community level spread is considered unlikely as the virus has not demonstrated the ability to transmit easily among humans.

 

WHO advice

WHO advises that travellers to countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live bird markets, entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, or contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals. Travellers should also wash their hands often with soap and water. Travellers should follow good food safety and good food hygiene practices.

WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event, nor does it currently recommend any travel or trade restrictions. As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute respiratory symptoms while travelling or soon after returning from an area where avian influenza is a concern.

WHO encourages countries to continue strengthening influenza surveillance, including surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and to carefully review any unusual patterns, in order to ensure reporting of human infections under the IHR (2005), and continue national health preparedness actions.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; China; Human.

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The #Zika #Virus's #Family #Tree (The Atlantic, February 10 2016)

[Source: The Atlantic, full page: (LINK).]

The Zika Virus's Family Tree [      ]

by Chelsey Coombs 

In the summer of 1878, the city of Memphis, Tennessee—home to 45,000 to 50,000 people—suddenly became a ghost town. An epidemic was sweeping through the city, causing people’s temperatures to spike, their organs to fail, and their eyes and skin to turn yellow. The first Memphis resident to die from the yellow-fever outbreak did so on August 13; by August 18, nearly 20,000 people had fled. By the end of the epidemic, Memphis contained less than half of its original population.

(…)

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Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika Virus.

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#USA, First #Alabama #resident confirmed with #Zika #virus (DoH, February 10 2016)

[Source: US State of Alabama Department of Health, full page: (LINK).]

NEWS RELEASE / ALABAMA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, RSA Tower, 201 Monroe Street, Suite 914, Montgomery, AL 36104, Phone  334-206-5300, Fax  334-206-5520 www.adph.org

______

First Alabama resident confirmed with Zika virus [      ]

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE / CONTACT:  Jim McVay, Dr.P.A. (334) 206-5600 

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The Alabama Department of Public Health reports the first confirmed travel-related case of Zika virus in an Alabama resident. The positive specimen was from a resident of Morgan County.

Tests are being conducted from Alabama resident specimens with a travel history to areas where Zika virus outbreaks are ongoing.

In addition to the one positive, there has been one negative result and four test results are pending. 

“We knew it was only a matter of time before we would have the first positive case of an individual in Alabama with Zika virus,” Acting State Health Officer Dr. Tom Miller said.

“Given the frequency of international travel to affected areas, we anticipate having additional positive cases. We are working with the medical community to identify high-risk individuals.”

Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bites of Aedes species mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are the same species that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses which have also been associated with travel-related illness over the past few years.

There have been recent reports that Zika virus may also be spread through blood transfusion and sexual contact.

Rarely, the virus may spread from mother to infant around the time of birth. It also may be possible to spread the virus from a mother to her baby during pregnancy.

Infection with the Zika virus causes only mild symptoms in the majority of the cases, but an apparent link to birth defects and other pregnancy-related poor outcomes has been associated with infection during pregnancy. In response to concern about the Zika virus, state agencies and other key stakeholders have been alerted.

“We are focusing on pregnant women and women in the reproductive age range who may become pregnant,” Dr. Miller said.

All pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission should be evaluated.

Pregnant women reporting clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease during or within 2 weeks of travel should be tested for Zika virus infection.

In addition, asymptomatic pregnant women who have traveled to Zika-affected areas should be tested for the Zika-virus between 2-12 weeks post travel.

The specific CDC recommendations include the following: 

  • Pregnant women should not travel to Zika-affected areas.
  • Men who have traveled to Zika-affected areas and have pregnant partners should abstain from sex or consistently and correctly use condoms for the duration of the pregnancy for all forms of sexual activity.
  • Men who have traveled to Zika-affected areas and have non-pregnant partners should consider abstaining from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms.

The Aedes mosquitoes are very aggressive biters and active during the day. ADPH advises the public to be aware of the risks posed by the Zika virus and to take steps to protect themselves from mosquito bites, including the following:

  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Use EPA-registered insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus or IR3535 as directed.
  • Stay and sleep in screened-in or air-conditioned rooms.

To help the public keep track of the status of Zika within the state, ADPH will provide regular updates each Monday that include total numbers of test samples submitted, the number with results pending, and number of positive results for Alabama residents at adph.org, search Zika. Results are currently being returned in about 14 days.

ADPH will update guidance as additional recommendations are developed. 

Since the outbreak is ongoing, the public is asked to check for updated travel notices at the CDC website, cdc.gov, search Zika.  

-30-  2/10/16

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Alabama; Zika Virus.

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#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours (@SaudiMOH, February 10 2016, edited)

[Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours [      ]

2/10/2016

______

New Cases:

  • No reports

New Recoveries: [Sex, Age, Citizenship, Resident in]

  1. M, 58, Saudi, Jeddah.

New Deaths:

  • No reports

Cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths since June 2012:

[Total No. of Cases – Total No. of Deaths – Patients under treatment]

  • 1292At least 551 - 2

______

(…)

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Keywords: Saudi Arabia; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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Quatro novos #casos de #infecção #humana pela #gripe #aviária #H7N9 registados na #China (Macau DoH, February 10 2016)

[Source: Department of Health, Macau PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).]

Quatro novos casos de infecção humana pela gripe aviária H7N9 registados na China  [      ]

2016-02-10 22:26:00 / Fonte : Serviços de Saúde

Os Serviços de Saúde foram notificados pelos Departamentos de Saúde da Província de Fujian e da Cidade de Xangai, respectivamente, da confirmação dum total de quatro novos casos de infecção humana pela gripe aviária H7N9.

As informações divulgadas referem que um caso foi detectado em Xangai num homem com 66 anos de idade que se encontra internado para tratamento.

Quanto aos outros três casos registados em Fujian, o Departamento de Saúde desta provincia não divulgou quaisquer informações detalhadas.

Desde 2013 e até à data que foram registados, cumulativamente, na China 705 casos confirmados de infecção humana pela gripe aviária H7N9, dos quais resultaram pelo menos 238 óbitos.

Desde Setembro de 2015, que as áreas afectadas com ocorrência de casos de infecção local incluem as províncias de Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Jiangxi, Xangai e Hunan.

Os Serviços de Saúde têm mantido estreita comunicação com as entidades de saúde da China, regiões vizinhas e a Organização Mundial de Saúde, procedendo a uma estreita vigilância da situação epidemiológica de diversas regiões bem como têm desenvolvido a colaboração inter-serviços entre os sectores publico e privado, de modo a enfrentar, de imediato, o eventual surgimento de surtos de vírus da gripe aviária H7N9, em Macau ou nas regiões vizinhas.

Perante as actuais condições os Serviços de Saúde prevêem que durante um período, na China, ocorrerão mais casos de infecção humana pela gripe aviária H7N9 na China, não excluindo, assim, a possibilidade de ocorrerem eventuais casos em Macau. Os Serviços de Saúde já solicitaram a todas as instituições de saúde e aos profissionais de saúde que prestem atenção especial a situaçoes que possam ser consideradas como casos suspeitos e que procedam, de forma atempada à análise e encaminhamento das situações conforme previsto.

A par disso, os Serviços de Saúde apelam aos cidadãos para prestarem atenção ao seguinte:

  • Evitar deslocar-se aos mercados, granjas e outros locais onde haja venda ou exposição de aves com casos de infecção humana pela gripe aviária H7N9;
  • Evitar o contacto com aves, suas secreções e excrementos, e em caso de contacto, lavar as mãos de imediato;
  • Não comprar ou transportar aves não inspeccionadas;
  • Evitar consumir carne, vísceras, produtos derivados de sangue e ovos de aves mal cozinhados;
  • Prestar atenção à higiene pessoal e lavar as mãos com frequência;

Se tiver sintomas de febre, tosse e dificuldades respiratórias, entre outros, deve usar máscara e dirigir-se ao médico o mais rapidamente possível, devendo informá-lo de forma detalhada da história de viagem e de contacto com animais.

Para informações detalhadas sobre a gripe aviária, pode consultar o sítio electrónico dos Serviços de Saúde (www.ssm.gov.mo) ou telefonar para a linha aberta de informações de doenças transmissíveis dos Serviços de Saúde (28 700 800).

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Keywords: Macau PRC SAR; Updates; China; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Fujian; Shanghai.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N9, #France [one new #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, February 10 2016, edited)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N9, France [      ]

Information received on 09/02/2016 from Dr Loic Evain, Directeur Général adjoint, CVO, Direction générale de l'alimentation, Ministère de l'Agriculture, de l'Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt, Paris, France

  • Summary
    • Report type Follow-up report No. 7
    • Date of start of the event 18/11/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event 06/12/2015
    • Report date 09/02/2016
    • Date submitted to OIE 09/02/2016
    • Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype H5N9
    • Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
    • Related reports
      • Immediate notification (08/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 1 (10/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 2 (14/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 3 (15/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 4 (21/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 5 (24/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 6 (04/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 7 (09/02/2016)
  • New outbreaks (1)
    • Outbreak 1 (71) - MAZEROLLES, MAZEROLLES, PYRÉNÉES-ATLANTIQUES
      • Date of start of the outbreak 03/02/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (09/02/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 4400 – 80 – 80 – 4320 – 0
        • Affected population:
          • Samples were taken in the framework of clinical suspicion, 80 animals in a “label” broilers holding showed mortality.
          • The National Reference laboratory confirmed the presence of H5N9 virus.
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 4400 – 80 – 80 – 4320 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 1.82% - 1.82% - 100.00% - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Screening
      • Disinfection / Disinfestation
      • Traceability
      • Stamping out
      • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
      • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • ANSES National Reference Laboratory (National laboratory) – Birds - nucleotide sequencing - 08/02/2016 – Positive
      • ANSES National Reference Laboratory (National laboratory) – Birds - real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) - 08/02/2016 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; H5N9; Avian Influenza; Poultry; France.

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#Congo DR, Bas-Uélé : 51 nouveaux cas de #MonkeyPox enregistrés, 2 #morts (Radio Okapi, February 10 2016)

[Source: Radio Okapi, full page: (LINK).]

Bas-Uélé : 51 nouveaux cas de Monkey Pox enregistrés, 2 morts [      ]

Cinquante et un nouveaux cas de Monkey Pox, cette maladie appelée aussi la variole des singes , sont enregistrés dans le territoire d’Aketi (Bas-Uélé) à la première semaine du mois de février. Le médecin chef de zone, Dr Innocent Akonda, qui a livré ce chiffre, mardi 9 février, a indiqué que deux cas de décès ont été recensés.

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Keywords: Monkeypox, Congo DR.

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#Venezuela, Sospechan que #fiebre de #Guanarito causó 12 #muertes en Barinased (El Nacional, February 10 2016)

[Source: El Nacional, full page: (LINK).]

Sospechan que fiebre de Guanarito causó 12 muertes en Barinas [      ]

MARÍA EMILIA JORGE M. / 10 de febrero 2016 - 12:01 am

Entre el 15 de diciembre de 2015 y febrero de 2016 ocurrieron en el estado Barinas 12 muertes en pacientes con síndrome febril hemorrágico. La Sociedad Venezolana de Salud Pública cree que podría tratarse de la fiebre de Guanarito y no de dengue hemorrágico como apuntaban las primeras versiones.

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Keywords: Venezuela; Venezuelan Haemorrhagic Fever.

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